Fact Sheet on Haitian Immigrants in the United States

By Steven A. Camarota on April 10, 2024

Political turmoil in Haiti has significantly increased the possibility of a surge in migration from that country to the United States. As a result, there is significant interest in the Haitian immigrant community currently residing in the United States. This fact sheet provides the most up-to-date socio-demographic profile of immigrants from that Caribbean country. The figures reported here are based on Center for Immigration Studies analysis of the Census Bureau’s American Community Survey (ACS), monthly Current Population Survey (CPS), and Annual Social and Economic Supplement of the Current Population Survey (ASEC CPS). Each survey provides somewhat different information about the U.S. population including the Haitian community.1

Below are some basic socio-demographic statistics:

  • The Census Bureau’s smaller, but more up-to-date, Current Population Survey (CPS) shows 852,000 Haitian immigrants in the country in February 2024, more than triple the number in 1990 and double the number in 2000.
  • The Census Bureau’s much larger American Community Survey (ACS) shows 727,000 Haitian immigrants (legal and illegal) in the United States in July 2022, up from 596,000 in 2010, 409,000 in 2000 and 224,000 in 1990.2
  • The top states of Haitian immigrant settlement based on the 2022 ACS are Florida (369,000, 51 percent); New York (113,000, 16 percent); Massachusetts (63,000, 9 percent); New Jersey (46,000; 6 percent); Georgia (28,000, 4 percent); and Connecticut (14,000, 2 percent). (2022 ACS)
  • In February 2024, there were 689,000 U.S.-born Americans who have at least one parent born in Haiti. A total of 1.5 million people living in the United States were either born in the Caribbean country, or have a parent born there. (February 2024 CPS)
  • Of the 852,000 foreign-born Haitians in the United States in 2024, 68.7 percent were naturalized U.S. citizens in February 2024; this compares to 49.5 percent for the overall foreign-born population. (February 2024 CPS)
  • Between 2010 and 2022, 235,350 Haitians were given green cards (permanent residence). These figures do not include those who entered on a long-term, temporary basis such as guestworkers and foreign students, nor does it include short-term visitors like tourists.3
  • Of those given permanent residence, 215,668 (92 percent) were admitted under family-based immigration (immediate relatives of U.S. citizens or family sponsored preferences).
  • Of Haitian immigrants ages 25 to 64, 17.1 percent have not graduated from high school, 30.3 percent have only a high school degree, 30 percent have some college, and 22.6 percent have at least a college degree. This compares to 6.6 percent, 25.4 percent, 30.4 percent, and 37.6 percent for U.S.-born Americans. (2022 ACS)
  • In 2022, 36.2 percent of Haitian immigrants and their young children (under 18) lived in or near poverty (<200 percent of the poverty threshold). This compared to 25.5 percent of U.S.-born Americans.4 (2023 ASEC CPS)
  • Of households headed by Haitian immigrants, 52.7 percent use at least one major welfare program. For households headed by native-born Americans it is 28.4 percent.5 (2023 ASEC CPS)
  • The share of Haitian immigrant households that are in owner-occupied housing was 48 percent in 2022. For households headed by the U.S.-born it was 67 percent. (2022 ACS)

End Notes

1 The American Community Survey (ACS) is by far the largest survey collected by the government. Its large size means it produces statistically robust estimates. Thus allowing, for example, a look at immigrants, including at the state level. However, it is released in the fall of each year in the calendar year after it is collected. The 2023 ACS will not be available for six more months. Moreover, it will only reflect the population in July 2023 when released in 2024. The monthly Current Population Survey, though much smaller than the ACS, is released the month after it is collected, allowing for the most up-to-date look at the U.S. population of any survey. However, it provides only limited information. The Annual Social and Economic Supplement of the Current Population Survey (ASEC CPS) is only released once a year, six months after it is collected each March. It is somewhat larger than the monthly CPS and, most importantly, it provides a great deal of detailed information on things such as income, poverty, and welfare use. It asks respondents about their income and use of social services in the prior calendar year, so the 2023 survey reports welfare use and income for 2022.

2 Figures for 2010 are from the ACS and figures for 2000 and 1990 are from the decennial census.

3 Yearbook of Immigration Statistics, 2010 to 2022, Office of Homeland Security Statistics.

4 The U.S.-born minor children of Haitian immigrants are those with a Haitian-born father or both parents. The U.S.-born are those with an American-born father or two American-born parents.

5 Programs include Temporary Assistance to Needy Families, Supplemental Security Income, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (food stamps), Women, Infants, and Children nutrition program, free/subsidized school lunch, public and subsidized housing, and Medicaid.