Immigration Reading List, 10/15/10

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House testimony on immigration and the economy
2. House testimony on immigration and agricultural workers
3. DHS report on naturalization, 1980-2008
4. Latest issues of DOJ EOIR Immigration Law Advisor
5. CRS report on Temporary Protected Status
6. GAO report on immigration detention costs
7. Canada: Population statistics
8. N.Z.: Survey on immigration



State and Local Legislation Bulletin
10. New report from Pew Hispanic Center
11. Migrant Remittances Newsletter
12. "Effects of Immigration on WIC and NSLP Caseloads"
13. Five new reports from the Migration Policy Institute
14. Four new reports from the Institute for the Study of Labor
15. Three new working papers from National Bureau of Economic Research
16. Nine new papers from the Social Science Research Network
17. Three new postings from the Immigration Professors' Blog
18. New report from the International Organization for Migration
19. "Walls at Every Turn"
20. "Screening for tuberculosis in asylum seekers:"
21. Report on diagnostic and treatment differences between native Dutch and non-western immigrants
22. "Immigrants, Social Networks, and Institutional Fairness"
23. "Religious discrimination against immigrants in Austria and Germany"



Cities and Citizenship at the U.S.-Mexico Border:
25. Regulating Low-Skilled Immigration in the United States
26. The Death of Josseline: Immigration Stories from the Arizona Borderlands
27. Security, Citizenship and Human Rights: Shared Values in Uncertain Times
28. Migration in the 21st Century: Rights, Outcomes, and Policy
29. The Political Representation of Immigrants and Minorities:
30. Global Marriage: Cross-Border Marriage Migration in Global Context
31. Immigrants and the Right to Stay
32. The Making of the Mosaic: A History of Canadian Immigration Policy
33. Immigration, Integration, and Inclusion in Ontario Cities
34. Dispossession and Displacement: Forced Migration in the Middle East and North Africa



Asian Migration News
36. Journal of International Migration and Integration
37. Journal of Refugee Studies
38. Latino Studies
39. Refugee Survey Quarterly
40. The Social Contract

Hearing on immigration and the economy

House Committee on the Judiciary
Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law
Thursday, September 30, 2010

Witness Testimony

Michael R. Bloomberg, Mayor
City of New York
New York, NY

Rupert Murdoch, Chairman and CEO
News Corporation
New York, NY

Jeff Moseley, President and CEO
The Greater Houston Partnership
Houston, TX

Steven A. Camarota, Director of Research
Center for Immigration Studies
Washington, DC


Hearing on immigration and agricultural workers

House Committee on the Judiciary
Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law
Friday, September 24, 2010

Witness Testimony

Arturo S. Rodriguez, President
United Farm Workers of America
Keene, CA

Phil B. Glaize, Chairman
U.S. Apple Association
Vienna, VA

Carol M. Swain, Professor
Vanderbilt University
Nashville, TN

Stephen T. Colbert, Host
The Colbert Report
Comedy Central Studios
New York, NY


Characteristics of Persons Naturalizing in the United States Between 1980 and 2008
By James Lee
DHS Office of Immigration Statistics Fact Sheet, September 2010…


Immigration Law Advisor
Executive Office for Immigration Review

Recent Developments in Gang-Related Asylum Claims Based on Membership in a Particular Social Group
By Suzanne M. DeBerry
Vol. 4 No. 8, September 2010

Recent Developments in Gang-Related Asylum Claims Based on Membership in a Particular Social Group
By Micah N. Bump
Vol. 4 No. 7, July-August 2010


Temporary Protected Status: Current Immigration Policy and Issues
By Ruth Ellen Wasem and Karma Ester
CRS Report for Congress, September 9, 2010


New from the General Accountability Office

Office of the Federal Detention Trustee's (OFDT) Cost Estimation Methods Reflect Features of Best Practices, but Processes Could be Enhanced
Government Accountability Office, GAO-10-1037R, September 30, 2010
Report -
Highlights -


Canada's population estimates, Second quarter 2010 (preliminary)
Statistics Canada, September 29, 2010


Longitudinal Immigration Survey: New Zealand – Wave 3, 2009
Statistics New Zealand, September 27, 2010…


State and Local Legislation Bulletin
Immigration Reform Law Institute
Issue 38, September 2010 (forthcoming)


* Support for Arizona-type legislation continues in Colorado, Montana and North Dakota
* Hazelton Decision
* Summerville Ordinance Failed
* Immigration-Related Employment Discrimination: Lessons from the Federal Suit Against Maricopa Community College
* Michigan Introduces E-Verify Legislation
* PA Resolution Urging Non-compliance with REAL ID Act
* IRLI Footnote on the Law: Constitutionality of Stricter sentencing for Illegal Aliens and Re-entry Illegal Aliens

Support for Arizona-type legislation continues in Colorado, Montana and North Dakota
Representative Kent Lambert (R-Colorado Springs) has taken initial steps toward the introduction of Arizona-type legislation in Colorado. The measure is expected to be introduced when the Colorado Legislature convenes in January 2011. Rep. Lambert has reserved the bill title and asked Legislative Legal Services and IRLI to review the drafted legislation. Other legislators, including Rep. Randy Baumgardner (R-Hot Sulphur Springs) have expressed their support for the legislation.
Immigration reform activists in Montana have also contacted IRLI for assistance in drafting Arizona-type legislation. The Montana legislature will convene for its biannual session on January 3, 2011, where the legislation is planned to be introduced. The Montana legislature has a strict single subject rule, which means that the format of legislation will be different from Arizona SB 1070, which is an all-inclusive omnibus bill. IRLI has provided assistance with bills regarding public and private E-Verify, anti-sanctuary, identification and public benefits.

North Dakota Representative Jim Kasper (R-Fargo) has also expressed his intentions to introduce an Arizona-type bill in his state. IRLI has been asked to review the legislation. The North Dakota legislature is scheduled to convene on January 4, 2011.

Hazelton Decision

In August 2006, the city of Hazelton, Pennsylvania enacted a series of local ordinances aimed at unauthorized aliens living and working in the city, in an effort to protect the interest and safety of United States citizens and legal immigrants who reside in Hazelton. The ordinances were designed to prevent unauthorized aliens from obtaining employment or rental housing. Subsequently, individuals and groups sued the city, alleging the ordinances were unconstitutional and in violation of federal and state statutes.

On July 26, 2007, the federal district court ruled that the ordinances were unconstitutional because they were preempted by controlling federal immigration laws. The district court permanently enjoined the ordinances preventing their enforcement. The case was appealed to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third District.

On September, 9, 2010, the Third Circuit issued its decision, upholding the district court's finding of unconstitutionality, though by different reasoning. The court found that Hazelton's employment provisions "stand as an obstacle of the accomplishment and execution" of federal law because the provisions are drastically burdensome on employers and the lack of procedural safeguards for employers which, according to the court, violated Congressional intent. The housing provisions of the Hazelton ordinances were also found preempted by federal law because the court considered the city's power to regulate residency based on immigration status to be exclusively within the domain of the federal government. The court failed to recognize that Hazelton, like thousands of other cities and towns across the country, is burdened by the federal government's failure to carry out its responsibilities to enforce U.S. immigration laws. The Pittsburgh Post Gazette reported that Mayor Lou Barletta has vowed to "fight this to the highest court" in his efforts to save the city of Hazelton.

Summerville Ordinance Failed
As reported in the July 2010 IRLI Bulletin, the city of Summerville, South Carolina first introduced an ordinance regarding housing and employment of illegal aliens much like the city of Hazelton. The first reading of the original ordinance was in August 2010 where it passed by a vote of 4-2. The ordinance had its second and final reading on Wednesday, September 8, 2010, where the ordinance failed.
The town council however, did endorse a new version of the ordinance, with the intent of separating the housing and harboring provisions from those related to employment. The changes to the ordinance were reportedly in response to threats of litigation. The new version, proposed by council member Walter Bailey, would make it unlawful only to hire illegal aliens. The substitute ordinance, aimed only at employers, passed its first reading by a vote of 5 to 1. The council will resume its session for the second reading of the new ordinance on October 12.

Immigration-Related Employment Discrimination: Lessons from the Federal Suit Against Maricopa Community College
The United States Department of Justice Office of Special Counsel for Immigration-Related Employment Discrimination (OSC) filed suit against Maricopa Community College (MCC) on August 30, 2010, alleging that MCC violated 8 USC 1324a, the federal law enacted as part of the 1986 amnesty legislation that made an immigration-related unfair employment practice for an employer to treat a lawful immigrant differently than a U.S. citizen in the hiring, recruitment, or discharge process.

Zainul Singaporewalla, a lawful permanent resident, complained to the OSC that his job offer with MCC was rescinded when he failed to show his permanent resident card after he filled out a Non-U.S. Citizen Employee Tax Data Form. This non-federally required form requests information about an alien's immigration status, visa type, and the number of years they have lived in the country. Presumably the MCC Human Resources staff requested this information to determine if Singaporewalla was a resident alien or a non-resident alien for tax purposes. They apparently failed to comply with the restriction in section 1324, against requesting additional documentation from a job applicant. (In January 2010, MCC stopped requiring the additional information from foreign job applicants.)

The OSC lawsuit, actually an administrative proceeding before an administrative appeals board called the Office of the Chief Hearing Officer (OCAHO), an important lesson to employers in general. In light of the more sophisticated forged social security cards and driver's licenses that aliens are now producing, enrollment in the E-Verify program can save employers both from inadvertent discrimination claim and from mistakenly hiring unauthorized workers.

A key factor is the correct use of E-Verify program. MCC could have avoided being sued by DOJ had it left Singaporewalla's job offer intact and hired him. Once the applicant had accepted the job, MCC's personnel office could have lawfully checked his social security number with E-Verify. If Singaporewalla's information was not confirmed by the E-Verify system, and he had been given an opportunity to correct any data-input mistakes, MCC could have lawfully discharged him.

The administration has a duty to enforce the laws of the United States including the immigration laws. Unfortunately, the President has focused the Administration's resources on building political support within the immigrant community, and publicly punishing Arizonans for dealing with the illegal immigration issue.

Michigan Introduces E-Verify Legislation

On June 8, 2010 the Michigan Legislature introduced state Senate Bill 1372, the Public Contract and Employment Eligibility Verification Act. If SB 1372 passes, it would require mandatory E-Verify enrollment for public contractors and subcontractors. SB 1372 would prohibit employers from discharging a legal resident or citizen employee if the employer knowingly employed an illegal alien at the time of the discharge. The measure provides a private right of action for any employee who is discharged in this situation. The proposed measure requires all employers to obtain an affidavit from potential employees stating that the employee is authorized for employment in the United States. The employer must then use E-Verify to check the eligibility of new employees. However, until the affidavit has been verified it is presumed to be proof of lawful presence. This procedure, however, conflicts with the I-9 requirements set forth in 8 U.S.C. § 1324a, which requires an employer to utilize the I-9 form and attest to an examination of the employee's various identification documents.

The context of Michigan's proposed legislation is slightly different than other measures regarding E-Verify. The measure lacks a penalty for employers who do not comply with the E-Verify requirements or employers who employ illegal aliens. Instead, the only penalty in the measure is for false, fictitious, or fraudulent statements of employment eligibility in the affidavits claiming lawful presence.

PA Resolution Urging Non-compliance with REAL ID Act

Pennsylvania Rep. Thomas recently introduced a resolution urging non-compliance with the REAL ID Act of 2005 until the Federal Government provides Pennsylvania with "adequate funding" for its implementation and amendments are made to decrease the administrative burdens on the state.

Some of the burdens include longer lines at department of motor vehicle offices, higher costs and an increase in document requests and waiting periods by charging states for access to databases for the purpose of verifying the immigration and citizenship status of residents. In addition, the PA resolution claims that because the REAL ID Act requires all states to share their identification information that the information will be exposed to security weaknesses and threaten the privacy of every American.

States are free to issue licenses and identification cards that do not comply with the REAL ID Act, however, these non-complying cards must have a unique design and a clear statement that they cannot be accepted for any Federal identification purpose. For example, identification cards that do not comply with REAL ID requirements would not be acceptable identification at airport security checkpoints operated by the federal Transportation Security Administration.

IRLI on the Law: Stricter sentencing for Illegal Aliens and Re-entry Illegal Aliens

There has been a recent interest in imposing stricter punishments on illegal aliens who have been convicted of state crimes. Immigration status per se is not relevant for purposes of sentencing, however, circumstances that demonstrate a defendant's unwillingness to conform his conduct to legal requirements; whether or not there are criminal consequences may be relevant. State v. Cornelius, 112 Or App 98 (1992).
The purposes of sentencing are to protect the public from future harm and to punish the offender. State sentencing varies from state to state and it is important be aware of a state's terminology and possible constitutional issues regarding sentencing before drafting legislation in this area. It is also important to consider possible preemption issues when drafting legislative language that would mandate an increased sentence based on illegal reentry status. Issues associated with the timing and determination of the status of an illegal alien during sentencing for a state crime must also be considered.

It is important to understand the difference between a "sentencing factor" and a "sentence enhancement" when considering illegal immigration status for sentencing. A "sentencing factor" refers to a fact that was not found by a jury but that could affect the sentence imposed by the judge. McMillan v. Pennsylvania, 477 U.S. 79, 91 (1986). The term describes a circumstance, which may be either aggravating or mitigating in character, which supports a specific sentence within the range authorized by the jury's finding that the defendant is guilty of a particular offense. On the other hand, a "sentence enhancement" is used to describe an increase beyond the maximum authorized statutory sentence, and is the functional equivalent of an element of an offense greater than the one covered by the jury's guilty verdict. It fits squarely within the usual definition of an "element" of the offense.

Recently, Rep. William Snyder (R-Stuart) and Attorney General McCollum of Florida drafted legislation which would allow judges to specifically consider a defendant's unlawful presence in the process of setting bond and sentence multiplier for crimes committed by an undocumented or illegal alien. Additionally, activists have expressed the intent to develop legislation which would increase the sentencing for re-entry immigrants convicted of state crimes. The INA forbids an alien who once was deported to return to the United States without special permission. 8 U.S.C. § 1326(a). It also authorizes a prison term of up to, but no more than two years for a violation of re-entry. Subsection (b)(2) of the same section authorizes a prison term of up to, but no more than, 20 years for "any alien described" in subsection (a), if the initial "deportation was subsequent to a conviction for commission of an aggravated felony." § 1326(b)(2). Subsection (b) has been determined to be a penalty provision, which simply authorizes a court to increase the sentence for a recidivist but does not define a separate crime.
Due to the complex nature of the legislation in this area, IRLI recommends that anyone considering drafting legislation regarding illegal immigration status as a sentencing factor please contact our office for preemption, due process and equal protection review by qualified IRLI personnel to better ensure compliance with federal law at [email protected] or (202) 232-5590.


Latinos and the 2010 Elections
Strong Support for Democrats; Weak Voter Motivation
By Mark Hugo Lopez
Pew Hispanic Center, October 5, 2010


Migrant Remittances Newsletter
Vol. 7, No. 2, October 2010


Effects of Immigration on WIC and NSLP Caseloads
By Tracy Vericker, Karina Fortuny, Kenneth finegold, and Sevgi Bayram Ozdemir
The Urban Institute, September 2010


New from the Migration Policy Institute

Migration and Immigrants Two Years after the Financial Collapse: Where Do We Stand?
By Demetrios G. Papademetriou, Madeleine Sumption, and Aaron Terrazas
With Carola Burkert, Stephen Loyal, and Ruth Ferrero-Turrión
October 2010

H-1B Temporary Skilled Worker Program
By Jeanne Batalova
Migration Information Source, October 2010

Vietnamese Immigrants in the United States
By Aaron Terrazas and Cristina Batog
Migration Information Source, September 2010

EU Membership Highlights Poland's Migration Challenges
By Krystyna Iglicka and Magdalena Ziolek-Skrzypczak
Migration Information Source, Country Profile, September 2010

Jordan: A Refugee Haven
By Géraldine Chatelard
Migration Information Source, Country Profile, August 2010


New from the Institute for the Study of Labor

Post-Socialist International Migration: The Case of China-to-South Korea Ethnic Labour Migration
By Anna Myunghee Kim:
IZA Discussion Paper No. 5214, September 2010

The Importance of Heterogeneity When Examining Immigrant Education-Occupation Mismatch: Evidence from New Zealand
By Jacques Poot and Steven Stillman
IZA Discussion Paper No. 5211, September 2010

Occupational Choice of Return Migrants in Moldova
By Daniela Borodak and Matloob Piracha
IZA Discussion Paper No. 5207, September 2010

Assimilation and Integration of Immigrants in Europe
Mariya Aleksynska, Yann Algan:
IZA Discussion Paper No. 5185, September 2010


New from the National Bureau of Economic Research

Immigration, Offshoring and American Jobs
By Gianmarco I.P. Ottaviano, Giovanni Peri, and Greg C. Wright
NBER Working Paper No. 16439, October 2010

Demography and Population Loss from Central Cities, 1950-2000
By Leah Platt Boustan and Allison Shertzer
NBER Working Paper No. 16435, October 2010

How Do Immigrants Spend Time?: The Process of Assimilation
By Daniel S. Hamermesh and Stephen J. Trejo
NBER Working Paper No. 16430, October 2010


New from the Social Science Research Network

Embracing the New Geography of Health Care: A Novel Way to Cover Those Left Out of Health Reform
By Nathan Cortez
Southern Methodist University Dedman School of Law
Southern California Law Review, Vol. 84, 2011
October 2010

The Influence of a Change in Immigration Law on US Marriage Rates
By Claudia Smith Kelly
Eastern Economic Journal, Vol. 36, Issue 4
October 2010

Pulling Teeth: The State of Mandatory Immigration Detention
By Geoffrey Heeren, Georgetown University Law Center
Harvard Civil Rights- Civil Liberties Law Review (CR-CL), Vol. 45, No. 2, 2010
October 2010

A Matter of Life & Death: Advocates in New York Respond to Medical Repatriation
By Nisha Agarwal and Liane Aronchick, New York Lawyers for the Public Interest
Harvard Civil Rights- Civil Liberties Law Review (CR-CL), Vol. 46, 2010
October 5, 2010

SB 1070: A Review of the Impact on Immigrant Victims of Domestic Violence in Arizona
By Glenys Spence
Phoenix School of Law, October 1, 2010

The Effects of EU Citizenship
By Flora Goudappel
Erasmus University Rotterdam (EUR), October 1, 2010

Expression by Ordinance: Preemption and Proxy in Local Legislation
By Lindsay C. Nash
Cardozo Law School, September 30, 2010

US Internal Immigration Enforcement: Not a Model But an Alarum
By Lorraine A. Schmall
Northern Illinois University College of Law, September 24, 2010

Acquisition of Citizenship and Political Participation of Latino Immigrants
By Ines Levin
Calif. Inst. of Technology, Div. of the Humanities and Social Sciences, September 22, 2010


New from the Immigration Prof Blog

Lyttle v. United States: Lack Of Due Process In Immigration Detention System
October 14, 2010…

New American Voters The Growing Political Power of Immigrants and Their Children
The Immigration Policy Center, October 14, 2010…

Understanding SB1070 From the Lens of Institutionalized Racism and Civil Rights
By Bill Ong Hing
September 2010…


New from the International Organization for Migration

Migration and the Economic Crisis in the European Union: Implications for Policy
By Jobst Koehler, Frank Laczko, Christine Aghazarm, and Julia Schad
IOM Thematic Study, September 2010…


Walls at Every Turn
Abuse of Migrant Domestic Workers through Kuwait’s Sponsorship System
Human Rights Watch, October 6, 2010


Screening for tuberculosis in asylum seekers: comparison of chest radiography with an interview-based system
By Geisler S. Schneeberger, P. Helbling, J.P. Zellweger, and E.S. Altpeter
The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Vol. 14, No. 11, November 2010…


Differences in antibiotic treatment and utilization of diagnostic tests in Dutch primary care between natives and non-western immigrants
By Carolien C. Hogenhuis, Larissa Grigoryan, Mattijs Me Numans, and Theo J.M. Verheij
European Journal of General Practice, Vol. 16, No. 3, September 2010…


Questioning the New Liberal Dilemma: Immigrants, Social Networks, and Institutional Fairness
By Staffan Kumlin and Bo Rothstein
Comparative Politics, Vol. 43, No. 1, October 2010…


"A job interview for Mo, but none for Mohammed": Religious discrimination against immigrants in Austria and Germany
By Ingo Forstenlechner and Mohammed A. Al-Waqfi
Personnel Review, Vol. 39, No. 6, 2010…


Cities and Citizenship at the U.S.-Mexico Border: The Paso del Norte Metropolitan Region
Edited by Kathleen Staudt, Julia E. Monárrez Fragoso, and César M. Fuentes

Palgrave Macmillan, 272 pp.

Hardcover, ISBN: 0230100317, $90.00

Paperback, ISBN: 0230100325, $27.90

Book Description: At the center of the 2,000 mile U.S.-Mexico border, a sprawling transnational urban space has mushroomed into a metropolitan region with over two million people whose livelihoods depend on global manufacturing, cross-border trade, and border control jobs. Our volume advances knowledge on urban space, gender, education, security, and work, focusing on Ciudad Juárez, the export-processing (maquiladora) manufacturing capital of the Americas and the infamous site of femicide and outlier murder rates connected with arms and drug trafficking. Given global economic trends, this transnational urban region is a likely paradigmatic future for other world regions.


Regulating Low-Skilled Immigration in the United States
By Gordon H. Hanson

AEI Press, 60 pp.

Paperback, ISBN: 0844743704, $20.00

Book Description: With 11.9 million undocumented residents in the United States and illegal entrants accounting for nearly half of the low-skilled foreign workforce, there is widespread agreement that the current U.S. immigration system is broken. Past reform agendas have emphasized strengthening border security, increasing the number of visas for foreign guest workers, and defining a path to legal residence for illegal immigrants already living in the country. When the Obama administration addresses immigration reform-as it has promised to do before 2012-should it pick up where previous reform proposals left off? In Regulating Low Skilled Immigration in the United States, Gordon H. Hanson contends that efforts to curtail illegal entry will fail unless policymakers design a system that is responsive to market signals that encourage individuals to move to from low-wage labor markets in regions such as Central America to the more robust labor market in United States. On the whole, immigration benefits the U.S. economy by raising national income and making domestic capital more productive. However, increasing the low-skilled population may also increase the net tax burden on native residents. Successful reform depends on attracting immigrants with strong incentives to be productive laborers who will not place excessive demands on public services. Illegal immigration, as regulated by market forces, largely satisfies these criteria, but at the cost of undermining the rule of law and leaving the immigrant population unprotected. To create a better system for managing low-skilled immigration, Hanson argues, Congress should preserve the features of the current regime that serve the country well and strip away the features that corrode civil society and harm immigrants.


The Death of Josseline: Immigration Stories from the Arizona Borderlands
By Margaret Regan

Beacon Press, 256 pp.

Hardcover, ISBN: 0807042277, $19.67

Paperback, ISBN: 0807001309 , $10.12, 226 pp.

Kindle, ASIN: B004477UHG, $9.61, 771 KB

Book Description: For nearly a decade, Margaret Regan has reported from Arizona on the escalating chaos along the U.S.-Mexico border. Undocumented migrants cross into Arizona in overwhelming numbers, making the state a test case for the nation's border policies. In 2007, agents in the Tucson Sector alone caught more than a thousand people a day, far more than in other states. The vigilante movement had its roots here, and the state's employer laws are the most stringent. And for years Arizona has had the highest number of migrant deaths. Fourteen-year-old Josseline was just one of thousands who have perished in its deserts.


Security, Citizenship and Human Rights: Shared Values in Uncertain Times
By Derek McGhee

Palgrave Macmillan, 240 pp.

Hardcover, ISBN: 0230241530, $73.17

Book Description: This book examines counter-terrorism, immigration, citizenship, human rights, "equalities" and the shifting discourses of "shared values" and human rights in contemporary Britain.


Migration in the 21st Century: Rights, Outcomes, and Policy
By Thomas N. Maloney and Kim Korinek

Routledge, 304 pp.

Hardcover, ISBN: 0415779146, $125.73

Book Description: In this volume, we examine the challenges and opportunities created by global migration at the start of the 21st century. Our focus extends beyond economic impact to questions of international law, human rights, and social and political incorporation. We examine immigrant outcomes and policy questions at the global, national, and local levels. Our primary purpose is to connect ethical, legal, and social science scholarship from a variety of disciplines in order to raise questions and generate new insights regarding patterns of migration and the design of useful policy.

While the book incorporates studies of the evolution of immigration law globally and over the very long term, as well as considerations of the magnitude and determinants of immigrant flows at the global level, it places particular emphasis on the growth of immigration to the United States in the 1990s and early 2000s and provides new insights on the complex relationships between federal and state politics and regulation, popular misconceptions about the economic and social impacts of immigration, and the status of 'undocumented' immigrants.


The Political Representation of Immigrants and Minorities: Voters, Parties and Parliaments in Liberal Democracies
By Karen Bird, Thomas Saalfeld, and Andreas M. Wust

Routledge, 304 pp.

Hardcover, ISBN: 0415492726, $140.00

Kindle, ASIN: B0045U9VVK, $112.00, 1036 KB

Book Description: In 2005, almost 700,000 immigrants acquired the citizenship of a member state of the European Union; over 600,000 became US citizens; nearly 100,000 became Australians and approximately 200,000 Canadians. 2005 was not an exceptional year. During the past decades, many advanced liberal democracies have become more ethnically diverse societies. This book breaks new ground in the analysis of the political representation of immigrants and visible minorities both theoretically and empirically. It examines the upward trend in migrant and minority representation and demonstrates that there remain crucial differences across liberal democracies in the timing of these developments; in channels of access for minority representatives, in the policy focus and outcomes of minority representation; in the nature of the connections between minority representatives and minority communities, and in the nature of their relationships with constituents at large.

Part I analyses immigrants and visible minorities as voters, who must be the starting point of any analysis of political representation. Part II deals with the stage of candidate selection within political parties, a crucial and under-researched stage in the process of political representation. Part III deals with immigrants and members of visible minorities, once elected to parliament and includes analyses of the Canadian Parliament, the German Bundestag, MPs in the United Kingdom and Members of the United States Congress. The book will of interest to students and scholars of migration and ethnicity studies and political science, especially those with an interest in political representation, democratic institutions, voting behaviour, party organisation, legislative behaviour and comparative politics.


Global Marriage: Cross-Border Marriage Migration in Global Context
By Lucy Williams

Palgrave Macmillan, 240 pp.

Hardcover, ISBN: 0230218075, $85.00

Book Description: The popular imagination of marriage migration has been influenced by stories of marriage of convenience, of forced marriage, trafficking and of so-called mail-order brides. This book presents a uniquely global view of an expanding field that challenges these and other stereotypes of cross-border marriage.


Immigrants and the Right to Stay
By Joseph H. Carens

The MIT Press, 128 pp.

Hardcover, ISBN: 0262014831, $10.17

Book Description: The Obama administration promises to take on comprehensive immigration reform in 2010, setting policymakers to work on legislation that might give the approximately eleven million undocumented immigrants currently living in the United States a path to legalization of status. Commentators have been quick to observe that any such proposal will face intense opposition.

Few issues have so divided the country in recent years as immigration. Immigrants and the Right to Stay brings the debate into the realm of public reason. Political theorist Joseph Carens argues that although states have a right to control their borders, the right to deport those who violate immigration laws is not absolute. With time, immigrants develop a moral claim to stay. Emphasizing the moral importance of social membership, and drawing on principles widely recognized in liberal democracies, Carens calls for a rolling amnesty that gives unauthorized migrants a path to regularize their status once they have been settled for a significant period of time.

After Carens makes his case, six experts from across the political spectrum respond. Some protest that he goes too far; others say he does not go far enough in protecting the rights of migrants. Several raise competing moral claims and others help us understand how the immigration problem became so large. Carens agrees that no moral claim is absolute, and that, on any complex public issue, principled debate involves weighing competing concerns. But for him the balance falls clearly on the side of amnesty.


The Making of the Mosaic: A History of Canadian Immigration Policy
By Ninette Kelley and M. Trebilcock

University of Toronto Press, Scholarly Publishing Division, 672 pp.

Paperback, ISBN: 0802095364, $39.95

Book Description: Immigration policy is a subject of intense political and public debate. In this second edition of the widely recognized and authoritative work The Making of the Mosaic, Ninette Kelley and Michael Trebilcock have thoroughly revised and updated their examination of the ideas, interests, institutions, and rhetoric that have shaped Canada's immigration history.

Beginning their study in the pre-Confederation period, the authors interpret major episodes in the evolution of Canadian immigration policy, including the massive deportations of the First World War and Depression eras as well as the Japanese-Canadian internship camps during World War Two. New chapters provide perspective on immigration in a post-9/11 world, where security concerns and a demand for temporary foreign workers play a defining role in immigration policy reform. A comprehensive and important work, The Making of the Mosaic clarifies the attitudes underlying each phase and juncture of immigration history, providing vital perspective on the central issues of immigration policy that continue to confront us today.


Immigration, Integration, and Inclusion in Ontario Cities
By Caroline Andrew, John Biles, and Meyer Burstein

McGill-Queen's University Press, 250 pp.

Hardcover, ISBN: 1553392930, $68.00

Paperback, ISBN: 1553392922, $39.95

Book Description: Ontario receives the majority of newcomers to Canada and its cities are a locus of diversity. Recognizing that the building and sustenance of "welcoming communities" is as much a local project as a national and provincial one, this volume explores the activities of municipal governments in Ontario as well as those of a number of other important "social forces" situated at the local level. Twelve city case studies are guided by a common template to facilitate comparisons and allow for an overall mapping of the players and a better estimation of the investments -- human and financial - that are required for the successful integration and inclusion of newcomers and minorities in Ontario cities. The conclusion provides a sense of the relative success (or failure) that Ontario cities have had in the creation of welcoming and inclusive communities.


Dispossession and Displacement: Forced Migration in the Middle East and North Africa
By Dawn Chatty and Bill Finlayson

Oxford University Press, USA, 224 pp.

Hardcover, ISBN: 019726459X, $40.00

Book Description: This volume explores the extent to which forced migration has become a defining feature of life in the Middle East and North Africa. The papers present research on refugees, internally displaced peoples, as well as 'those who remain', from Afghanistan in the East to Morocco in the West.

Dealing with the dispossession and displacement of waves of peoples forced into the region at the end of World War I, and the Palestinian dispossession after World War II, the volume also examines the plight of the nearly 4 million Iraqis who have fled their country or been internally displaced since 1990.

Papers are grouped around four related themes--displacement, repatriation, identity in exile, and refugee policy--providing a significant contribution to this developing, highly pertinent area of contemporary research.


Asian Migration News
Edited by Fabio Baggio and Maruja M.B. Asis
Scalabrini Migration Center, Manila, May 2010



New immigration law coming soon
Chinese authorities are deliberating on a proposal to enact the country’s first-ever immigration law. The first draft of the law will most likely categorize migrant workers into skilled and low-skilled, as well as limit the growing number of foreign workers. Experts from various research think tanks and institutes have been consulted by the government, and have weighed in on the issue. Among others, they emphasized the need for a policy that would attract talented professionals to assert the nation’s competitive appeal on the global stage. Government figures indicate that 26 million foreigners entered China in 2007, of which 2.85 million did for employment purposes.

Filipino domestic workers in demand
Locals and expatriates alike in the megacities of Beijing and Shanghai are gradually sharing a common trait – their desire to hire Filipino domestic workers. A report recently stated that the number of Filipino domestic workers is on the rise in China’s major cities. However, the same report indicated that many of them enter the country without work permits, but instead overstay after acquiring tourist visas. Expatriates, meanwhile, have sat up and taken notice of the sudden disappearance of adverts offering Filipino domestic workers, especially during the World Expo in Shanghai, rousing an even greater demand for them. A statewide regulation in 2002 banned foreigners from taking jobs as domestic workers.

Tokyo mulls toughen rules on remitting to North Korea
In response to North Korea’s sinking of a South Korean vessel, Japan is considering enforcing tougher restrictions on remittances sent to the reclusive state. The finance ministry, though, reiterated that any additional restrictions will be more symbolic since measures have already been put in place. The Japanese government mandates that any remittance amounting to more than 10 million yen (about $110,800) needs its approval and clearance. Other possible sanctions on Pyongyang include restrictions on travel and the banning of North Korean-flagged vessels from Japanese ports.

Irregular migration from Pakistan alarms officials
Immigration officials have expressed concern over the rising number of unauthorized Pakistani nationals entering their shores. They claimed having identified 2,400 irregular migrants in Hong Kong, most of whom arrived via boats or ferries. However, they vowed to process asylum applications from the South Asian country and separate them from those without legitimate claims or documentation.


Government to train domestic workers
In response to documented cases of physical or even sexual abuse, the Bangladeshi government announced it would take charge of training women as domestic workers before deploying them overseas. Previously, private agencies were tasked to send domestic workers abroad, but incidents of torture and inhumane treatment have prompted the government to take charge. The country plans to send up to 50,000 female workers abroad from July 2010-June 2011, mostly for domestic labor, after the completion of a 21-day training course at a cost of about $429.

Dhaka seeks deals with Seoul, Kuala Lumpur
Seeking to strengthen its position as a source of labor, the Bangladeshi government is seeking to forge separate deals with Malaysia and South Korea for the deployment of workers. Dhaka plans to engage Kuala Lumpur in talks that would allow the latter to hire Bangladeshi workers without the current quota system, which is seen to pose problems for workers. At the same time, overseas employment officials have urged about 8,000 South Korea-bound laborers to be patient after they launched a strike in protest over fears that they would not be taken in by Korean firms due to their government’s purported inaction. Authorities, though, maintained that the final say lies with the employees’ prospective Korean employees even if the two countries signed a pact in 2007 that would facilitate the entry of 8,000-10,000 workers annually.

Stronger cooperation needed as climate migration strikes
A government official said Bangladeshi government and the private sector have to cooperate to mitigate the possible negative consequences brought about by climate migration. In a policy roundtable discussion organized by the International Organisation for Migration and the Brac Development Institute, the country’s state minister for the environment pointed out that a significant proportion of the population could be displaced by the long-term impact of climate change, and stressed the need for an international regime on climate migration. The IOM, meanwhile, has expressed its readiness in helping the country handle the looming predicament.

IT industry allowed hiring more foreigners
The Indian government has relaxed measures that previously limited the number of foreign workers that IT companies could hire. Under the new measure, the erstwhile cap of 20 foreign workers per company, or one percent of the total number of employees in a given IT project, has been scrapped. The ministry of external affairs said all IT firms need to do is certify that a foreigner is working for them and present a declaration stating that he or she at least $25,000 per annum.

20 million unauthorized migrants in India – report
The Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs said there are an estimated 20 million irregular migrants in the country. It partly attributed this to the country’s open borders with Bangladesh and Nepal, as well as similarities in physical characteristics between Indians and people of other South Asian backgrounds. The country is currently in the midst of building a 4,000-kilometer barrier along the Indo-Bangladeshi border. Meanwhile, the government said nearly 65,000 foreigners had overstayed in India in 2008, 11,000 more than in the previous year.

Bill to regulate emigration promulgated
The government is set to introduce the Emigration Management Bill, 2010 in order to keep better tabs on Indian nationals leaving the country. The proposed law, envisioned to replace the Emigration Act, 1983, contains measures aimed at preventing both human trafficking and unauthorized migration. The draft legislation, which has already been sent to the home and law ministries, will also require recruiters to register with authorities.


Males trafficked for fishing industry
A Cambodian human rights group has expressed concern over the growing number of cases involving young men who are kidnapped and forced to work in Thai fishing vessels. Despite the lack of actual figures, the group estimates that about a thousand Cambodian males have fallen prey to local brokers, who initially promise them jobs in plantations or construction sites in Thailand. Once in Thailand, they are taken into fishing ports to work in fishing boats, oftentimes without pay, and allowed to rest for about two to three hours as they are drugged and beaten by armed Thai crewmembers. Currently, activists point to the weak laws against trafficking and poverty as the chief culprits behind this phenomenon.

Pact with Malaysia still not completed
Indonesian and Malaysian officials failed to strike a more binding deal on labor migration, instead signing a letter of intent that would accord Indonesian workers greater protection under Malaysian law. Indonesia’s manpower minister and his counterpart from Malaysia’s home affairs ministry sealed a temporary deal that would give Indonesian workers a day off and the freedom to keep their passports. The agreement, though, did not include the setting of minimum wages, widely considered as the primary point of contention between the two countries. Instead, the two nations will be mandated to stipulate their own minimum wage clauses separately, a situation that Jakarta feels could end up in a stalemate as the issue of which stated minimum wage would take precedence over the other seems inevitable. Earlier, Indonesia was negotiating for a monthly minimum wage of 800 ringgit ($249), a figure Kuala Lumpur rejected. The temporary deal, however, does not put an end to Indonesia’s 11-month ban on deploying workers to the peninsula, although government officials and migrant worker groups confirmed that the freeze has not been successful in stemming the flow of workers into Malaysia. A more comprehensive memorandum of understanding between the two countries is expected to be signed in July. Malaysia is home to two million Indonesian workers, but only 1.2 million of them are considered regular. Of this, 300,000 work in the domestic sector.

Jakarta denies Saudi Arabian ban on its workers
Indonesian manpower authorities denied speculation that its workers were being banned by Saudi Arabia. An earlier newspaper report indicated that the kingdom was seeking alternative sources of foreign labor from nations like Cambodia, Thailand and Vietnam after recruitment costs and minimum wages of Indonesian workers had soared. On the contrary, Jakarta said it maintained strong bilateral ties with the Gulf kingdom. Saudi Arabia has the second-largest number of Indonesian workers in the Middle East with 927,500.

Indonesia gives thumbs-down to Australian asylum proposal
Indonesia said it does not welcome an Australian opposition party’s plan to house asylum-seekers in countries outside Australia. The foreign ministry said Tony Abbott’s proposal, which resurrects the “Pacific Solution” implemented by former Australian Prime Minister John Howard, won’t receive backing from Indonesia and will not address the issue of human trafficking.

1.9M foreigners in the country in 2009
Government officials said the number of foreigners in Malaysia breached the 1.9 million-mark in 2009. Indonesians formed the biggest group of non-locals in the peninsula at 991,940, followed by Bangladeshis, Nepalese, Burmese and Indians, in that order. Most of the foreigners, they said, were cooks and domestic workers after the country froze the hiring of foreign labor in other industries. However, they were also quick to point out their estimate that the ratio of irregular to authorized migrants is 1:1. In a related development, officials have set up a 30-man laboratory tasked to collect data on foreigners in Sabah due to an abundance of irregular migrants in the state. The lab is expected to deliver its maiden report within a month.

KL to offer amnesty to irregular workers
The government is set to offer amnesty to irregular foreign workers in the country after it puts its biometric identification system in place. Malaysian Deputy Prime Minister Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin said individuals who entered the country without proper documentation or overstayed would be granted amnesty without the threat of sanctions. The proposed biometric system, though, would have to be in place first, he said, as this would efficiently store data on workers and visitors to the country. Should the government push through with this move, it will mark the third time this decade that authorities have granted such a reprieve. In a related development, a group of Rohingya asylum-seekers is seeking exclusion from the program after registering with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. The group fears it will be sent back to the Thai-Malaysian border just like in 2002 and 2004 – the two previous times Kuala Lumpur enforced an amnesty program. The Rohingyas have endured years of persecution under the Burmese junta.


Government extends ‘Easy Exit’ program
The Bahraini government has announced an “Easy Exit” program that will allow unauthorized migrants to leave the country voluntarily without paying fees or accumulated fines. While the government made it clear it wasn’t giving amnesty, it urged employers and businesses to cooperate with authorities by hiring only authorized migrant workers. More than half of the Gulf kingdom’s population is composed of foreigners.

Watchdog wants more stringent protection laws
Human Rights Watch said Kuwait must put in place more measures aimed at protecting the rights of migrant workers. According to the group, foreign workers, especially domestic helpers, toil for as long as 16 hours and are subjected to physical and sexual abuse as they are excluded from legislative clauses. HRW also cited that contracts of domestic workers, who form a third of the country’s entire foreign workforce, are not honored. The government, meanwhile, claimed it has continually protected the rights of foreigners and women, proof of which is the country’s capacity to attract workers of different nationalities. Currently, it is mulling a proposal to enforce a minimum wage for the estimated 560,000 domestic workers in the country.

Worker amnesty extended
Omani officials have extended the deadline for unauthorized migrant workers to voluntarily leave without the risk of fines or file the necessary documentation should they wish to remain in the sultanate to 31 May. The number of registered foreign workers, currently at 163,000, is expected to increase by way of the extension. The ruling, authorities said, has resulted in the voluntary departure of 10,000 Bangladeshi workers and nearly 2,500 Pakistanis.

Official, recruiters want ban on Indonesian workers
Saudi Arabia’s senior consul in Jakarta and several recruitment agencies have proposed a ban on the hiring of Indonesian workers. The consul said Indonesian recruiters have hiked fees for their workers, making it more costly for locals to hire them. Their Saudi counterparts, meanwhile, supported the proposal, citing estimates that costs of tapping Indonesians had risen 300 percent the past three year. They indicated the need to look for alternative sources of labor like Cambodia, Thailand and Vietnam. The Ministry of Manpower and Transmigration, for its part, reiterated that the ban was mere speculation as it had yet to receive orders from the Saudi government to put a halt to the hiring. An estimated 1.5 million Indonesians work in the oil-rich kingdom.

Saudi mulling further reduction of work visas
In a bid to cut down on their reliance on foreign labor, the Saudi Arabian government is planning to reduce the issuance of work visas to non-Saudis on an annual basis. Labor officials said they would complement this move by intensifying training programs for locals. In 2009, the Saudi government slashed the number of issued work visas by 15 percent to 1.54 million from 1.81 million in 2008.



Opposition party resurrects ‘Pacific Solution’
Liberal Party leader Tony Abbott announced that the opposition has adopted a “Pacific Solution”-style immigration policy that would turn back asylum-seekers and boatpeople and look for off-shore detention centers. Citing the already-packed detention center in Christmas Island, Abbott said that a coalition government would begin negotiating with other countries on possible compensation schemes in exchange for housing asylum-seekers. Under the John Howard government, the Pacific Solution entailed offshore processing and detention, specifically in the Papua New Guinea-governed Manus Island and the Republic of Nauru. Several opposition MPs, however, have scorned the proposal and indicated that they were not consulted.

Medical professionals wanted; hairdressers, cooks to be cut
Immigration Minister Chris Evans has released a revised Skilled Occupation List, which includes half the number of occupations originally incorporated under the country’s working visa program. The new scheme trimmed the list of jobs to 180 but still includes dentists, surgeons, nurses, engineers, teachers, IT professionals and welders. Come 1 July 2010, however, hairdressers, dance instructors and chefs will find it more difficult to enter and work in the commonwealth after Canberra tightened its requirements. Student applications from India have already dropped by 40.8 percent in January 2010 from the same time in 2009, and some analysts are pointing to the visa changes as one of the causes for the dip. This comes on the heels of recent immigration projections forecasting slower population growth in 2010/11 due to a drop in overseas migration rates. A think-tank has predicted that, since net immigration is slated to decrease to 175,000 in 2010/11 and 145,000 the year after, population growth will slow to 1.5 percent in 2010/11 and 1.3 percent in 2011/12.

Amnesty International takes Canberra to task on refugees
London-based Amnesty International has slammed Australia for its recent policy on freezing refugee claims from Afghanistan and Sri Lanka. The group said Canberra has a responsibility towards asylum-seekers who desperately try to flee persecution from the war-torn South Asian countries. A separate report by the International Crisis Group scorned the federal government’s claim that it was now safe for fleeing Tamils to return to Sri Lanka. Meanwhile, three Melbourne-based lawyers weighed in on the moratorium, saying it was a breach of international law since it discriminated on asylum-seekers on the grounds of their country of origin. The freeze has had a contrasting outcome for the Rudd government, though, as the number of individual arrivals increased to an average of 22.2 people per day, up by about four boatpeople before the ban was imposed on 9 April.

Net migration soars year-on-year, but rate falls
Boosted by arrivals from the United Kingdom, net migration more than doubled from April 2009-April 2010. Inward migration was up to 19,954 in the 12 months ending on 30 April 2010, which is higher than the 9,200 posted in April 2009. The April 2009-April 2010 figure, however, is lower than the data collected from March 2009-2010. Arrivals from March 2009-March 2010 totaled 20,973, a shade above the figures tallied for April 2009-2010.


Journal of International Migration and Integration
Vol. 11, No. 3, August 2010

Selected articles:

Beyond Assimilation and Multiculturalism: A Critical Review of the Debate on Managing Diversity
By Dan Rodríguez-García…

Skilled German Migrants and Their Motives for Migration Within Europe
By Roland Verwiebe, Steffen Mau, Nana Seidel, and Till Kathmann…

Erasing English Language Competency: African Migrants in Vancouver, Canada
By Gillian Creese…

Evolution of Ethnic Enclaves in the Toronto Metropolitan Area, 2001-2006
By Mohammad Qadeer, Sandeep Agrawal, and Alexander Lovell…

Admission and Employment Criteria Discrepancies: Experiences of Skilled Immigrants in Toronto
Kara Somerville and Scott Walsworth…


Journal of Refugee Studies
Vol. 23, No. 3, September 2010


Stranded Migrants and the Fragmented Journey
By Michael Collyer

Muslim Asylum-Seekers and Refugees: Negotiating Identity, Politics and Religion in the UK
By Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh and Yousif M. Qasmiyeh

Where and When is Home? The Double Displacement of Georgian IDPs from Abkhazia
By Peter Kabachnik, Joanna Regulska, and Beth Mitchneck

Hospitality: Becoming ‘IDPs’ and ‘Hosts’ in Protracted Displacement
By Cathrine Brun

Exploring the Impact of Displacement and Encampment on Domestic Violence in Kakuma Refugee Camp
By Rebecca Horn

Explaining the Refugee Gap: Economic Outcomes of Refugees versus Other Immigrants
By Phillip Connor


Latino Studies
Vol. 8, No. 2, Fall 2010

Selected articles:

The power of racial scripts: What the history of Mexican immigration to the United States teaches us about relational notions of race
By Natalia Molina…

So far from Miami: Afro-Cuban Encounters with Mexicans in the US Southwest
By Julie A. Dowling and C Alison Newby…

Borderline Americans: Racial division and labor war in the Arizona borderlands
Lori A. Flores…


Vol. 8, No. 1, Summer 2010

Selected articles:

Challenging the border patrol, human rights and persistent inequalities: An ethnography of struggle in South Texas
By Angela C. Stuesse…

Violence across borders: Familism, hegemonic masculinity, and self-sacrificing femininity in the lives of Mexican and Peruvian migrants
By M. Cristina Alcalde…

Re-conceptualizing the economic incorporation of immigrants: A comparison of the Mexican and Vietnamese
By Shannon Gleeson…

Latin American immigrants in Indianapolis: Perceptions of prejudice and discrimination
By Antonio V. Menéndez Alarcon and Katherine B. Novak…

New allies for immigration reform: A Cincinnati story
By Erynn Masi de Casanova…

Four generations of Nortenos. New research from the cradle of Mexican migration
By Ana Maria Aragones…


Refugee Survey Quarterly
Vol. 29, No. 2, 2010


Refugee Women: Twenty Years On
By Dale Buscher

Transitioning Gender: Feminist Engagement with International Refugee Law and Policy 1950–2010
By Alice Edwards

A Short History of Gender Asylum in the United States: Resistance and Ambivalence May Very Slowly be Inching Towards Recognition of Women’s Claims
By Karen Musalo

“Ideal” Refugee Women and Gender Equality Mainstreaming in the Sahrawi Refugee Camps: “Good Practice” for Whom?
By Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh

Women Cut in Half: Refugee Women and the Commission for Reception, Truth-Seeking and Reconciliation in Timor-Leste
By Susan Harris Rimmer

Gender and the Evolving Refugee Regime
By Susan F. Martin


The Social Contract
Volume 20, No. 4, Summer 2010

Selected articles:

Arizona’s SB 1070: Fact and Fiction - A note from the Editors
By Social Contract Editors…

Arizona Takes the Lead on Illegal Immigration Enforcement
By Arizona State Sen. Russell Pearce…

How the New Media Advanced Arizona’s Immigration Law
By Inger Eberhart…

The Arizona Law and U.S. Journalism - Understanding the Hostility of the Mainstream Media
By Richard Pelto…

Michigan Attorney General Supports Arizona in Federal Court
By Wayne Lutton…

Language and Culture Wars in the Battle over Amnesty - Where We Are Now and What We Need to Understand
By Diana Hull…

The Burden of Plyler v. Doe
By Ed Rubenstein…

End Birthright Citizenship
By Virgil Goode…

Weigh Anchor! - Enforce the Citizenship Clause
By Howard Sutherland…

Drugs, Violence, and Travel Advisories - Welcome to the New ‘Normal’ in U.S.-Mexico Relations
By William B. Dickinson…

Immigration Issues Internationally - Choices and Challenges
By Peter B. Gemma…

Garrett Hardin’s Lifeboat Ethics Applied to Environmental Migrants
By John Cairns, Jr.…

It’s the Economy... and Immigration—Stupid!
By Edwin S. Rubenstein…

Hacking Passports - Exposing the Vulnerabilities of ‘Smart Card’ Technology
By Rob Sanchez…

Heading for a World Apocalypse?
By Donald A. Collins…

Goodbye to Terry Anderson - An American Hero
By D.A. King…

So Long, Father Pat…
By Wayne Lutton…

‘Unheralded Novel’ Portrays Grim Future for U.S.
By Izzy Lyman…