Immigration Reading List, 8/12/10

View the current edition of Immigration Reading List or view the Archive.

The Center's work is located on the Publication page.

We also offer the Immigration Reading List as an E-mail Update.



Senate testimony on passport security
2. Senate committee report on refugee resettlement
3. USCIS draft memo on administrative amnesty
4. GAO reports on US-VISIT and anti-smuggling measures
5. Europe: Population statistics
6. U.K.: Asylum statistics



New report from FAIR
8. Rasmussen poll on birthright citizenship
9. Two new reports from TRAC
10. New report from Pew Hispanic Center
11. Three new reports from the Migration Policy Institute
12. Six new reports from the Institute for the Study of Labor
13. Three new working papers from National Bureau of Economic Research
14. Seventeen new reports from the Social Science Research Network
15. Nine new reports from the German Marshall Fund
16. Five new features from the Immigration Professors' Blog
17. Six new reports from the International Organization for Migration
18. "Charity and self-help: Migrants' social networks and health care in the homeland"
19. "Using an Intersectional Approach to Study Immigration Attitudes"
20. "Linkages among climate change, crop yields and Mexico–US cross-border migration"
21. U.K.: "Ethnic minority immigrants and their children in Britain"
22. U.K.: "Ethnic Population Projections for the U.K. and Local Areas, 2001-2051"



Measuring the Effectiveness of Border Security Between Ports-of-Entry
24. The Local Dimension of Migration Policymaking
25. Safe Haven?: A History of Refugees in America
26. American Immigration Policy: Confronting the Nation's Challenges
27. Taking Local Control: Immigration Policy Activism in U.S. Cities and States
28. The Making of the Mosaic: A History of Canadian Immigration Policy
29. Asian Cross-border Marriage Migration: Demographic Patterns and Social Issues
30. Immigrants and American Racial Politics in the Early Twenty-first Century
31. Immigration and Conflict in Europe



33. International Journal of Refugee Law
34. International Migration
35. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
36. Migration News
37. People and Place
38. Rural Migration News

Hearing on the Passport Issuance Process: Closing the Door to Fraud, Part II

Senate Committee on the Judiciary
Wednesday, July 29, 2010

Member Statement

Benjamin L. Cardin

Witness Testimony

Gregory Kutz, Managing Director
Forensic Audits and Special Investigations
U.S. Government Accountability Office

Brenda S. Sprague, Dept. Asst. Secretary for Passport Services
U.S. Department of State


Abandoned Upon Arrival: Implications for Refugees and Local Communities Burdened by a U.S. Resettlement System That is Not Working
A Report to the Members of the Committee on Foreign Relations
United States Senate, 111th Congress, Second Session, July 21, 2010


Administrative Alernatives to Comprehensive Immigration Reform
Memorandum to USCIS Director Alejandro Mayorkas
July 2010


New from the General Accountability Office

Homeland Security: US-VISIT Pilot Evaluations Offer Limited Understanding of Air Exit Options
Government Accountability Office, GAO-10-860, August 10
Report -
Highlights -

DHS Could Better Address Alien Smuggling along the Southwest Border by Leveraging Investigative Resources and Measuring Program Performance
Statement of Richard M. Stana, Director, Homeland Security and Justice Issues
Government Accountability Office, GAO-10-919T, July 22, 2010
Report -
Summary -

DHS Could Better Address Alien Smuggling along the Southwest Border by Leveraging Investigative Resources and Measuring Program Performance
Government Accountability Office, GAO-10-919T, July 22, 2010
Report -
Summary -


EU27 population 501 million at 1 January 2010
More than 5 million children born in the EU27 in 2009
Eurostat, July 27, 2010…


Monthly Asylum Statistics - May 2010
U.K. Home Office, July 29, 2010


The Fiscal Burden of Illegal Immigration on United States Taxpayers
By Jack Martin and Eric A. Ruark
Federation for American Immigration Reform, July 2010


Rasmussen poll: Immigrant babies should not get citizenship
Phoenix Business Journal, August 2, 2010


New from the Transactional Records Access Clearinghouse, Syracuse University

Immigration Case Backlog Continues To Grow
August 2010

Current ICE Removals of Noncitizens Exceed Numbers Under Bush Administration
August 2010


Unauthorized Immigrants and Their U.S.-Born Children
By Jeffrey S. Passel and Paul Taylor
Pew Hispanic Center, August 11, 2010


New from the Migration Policy Institute

Diaspora Investment in Developing and Emerging Country Capital Markets: Patterns and Prospects
By Aaron Terrazas
August 2010

Time to Temper the Faith: Comparing the Migration and Development Experiences of Mexico and Morocco
By Hein de Haas and Simona Vezzoli
Migration Information Source, July 2010

Taiwanese Immigrants in the United States
By Serena Yi-Ying Lin


New from the Institute for the Study of Labor

The Effects of School Quality in the Origin on the Payoff to Schooling for Immigrants
By Barry R. Chiswick and Paul W. Miller
IZA Discussion Paper No. 5075, July 2010

Immigrant Assimilation, Trust and Social Capital
By James C. Cox and Wafa Hakim Orman
IZA Discussion Paper No. 5063, July 2010

Migration and Loving
By Deniz Gevrek
IZA Discussion Paper No. 5061, July 2010

A Political Economy of the Immigrant Assimilation: Internal Dynamics
By Gil S. Epstein and Ira N. Gang
IZA Discussion Paper No. 5059, July 2010

Interactions between Local and Migrant Workers at the Workplace
By Gil S. Epstein and Yosef Mealem
IZA Discussion Paper No. 5051, July 2010

How Do Immigrants Spend Their Time? The Process of Assimilation
By Daniel S. Hamermesh and Stephen J. Trejo
IZA Discussion Paper No. 5010, June 2010


New from the National Bureau of Economic Research

Attenuation Bias in Measuring the Wage Impact of Immigration
By Abdurrahman Aydemir and George J. Borjas
NBER Working Paper No. 16229, July 2010

Fiscal and Migration Competition
By Assaf Razin, Efraim Sadka
NBER Working Paper No. 16224, July 2010

Rethinking the Area Approach: Immigrants and the Labor Market in California, 1960-2005.
By Giovanni Peri
NBER Working Paper No. 16217, July 2010


New from the Social Science Research Network

‘U.S. Asylum Decisions: Who You Face on the Bench is as Important as What You Face at Home’
By Linda Keith and Jennifer S. Holmes
University of Texas at Dallas, August 10, 2010

If There is No Common and Unique European Identity, Should We Create One?
By Andreas Follesdal
August 2010

Alien Fears: Politics and Immigration Control
By Mary Elizabeth Crock
University of Sydney - Faculty of Law
Dialogue, Forthcoming, Sydney Law School Research Paper No. 10/73

Migration, Ethno-Nationalist Destinations, and Social Divisions: Non-Jewish Immigrants in Israel
By David Bartram
University of Leicester
Ethnopolitics, 2011, August 2, 2010

Strangers in a Strange Land: The Importance of Better Compliance with Consular Notification Rights
By Cindy Galway Buys
Southern Illinois University School of Law, July 30, 2010

The Economic Impact of Local Immigration Regulation: An Empirical Analysis
By Huyen Pham and Van H. Pham
Cardozo Law Review, Forthcoming, August 2010

Sustaining Tiered Personhood: Jim Crow and Anti-Immigrant Laws
By Karla Mari McKanders, University of Tennessee College of Law
Harvard J. of Racial and Ethnic Justice, Vol. 26, 2010

Cracked Mirror: SB1070 and Other State Regulation of Immigration through Criminal Law
By Gabriel J. Chin and Marc L. Miller
Arizona Legal Studies Discussion Paper No. 10-25, July 25, 2010

Fractured Membership: Deconstructing Territoriality to Secure Rights and Remedies for the Undocumented Worker
By D. Carolina Núñez, Brigham Young University Law School
Wisconsin Law Review, Vol. 2010, 2010

Automatic Nativist Preferences, Social Desirability, and Immigration Policy Attitudes
By Benjamin R. Knoll, Centre College
APSA 2010 Annual Meeting Paper

Mexico, the United States, & Migration: Blaming Hungry Huddled Masses or Policy Boomerangs?
By Imtiaz Hussain, Universidad Iberoamericana
APSA 2010 Annual Meeting Paper

Immigration and the Welfare State: Israel in Comparative Context
By Jennifer Oser and John Gal
APSA 2010 Annual Meeting Paper

Immigration, Association, and the Family
By Matthew J. Lister, University of Pennsylvania Law School
Law and Philosophy, Forthcoming
U of Penn Law School, Public Law Research Paper No. 10-24

The Impact of Immigration on the Structure of Wages: Theory and Evidence from Britain
By Marco Manacorda, Alan Manning, and Jonathan Wadsworth
CEPR Discussion Paper No. DP7888, June 2010

Defining Family in Immigration Law: Accounting for Non-Traditional Families in Citizenship by Descent
By Victoria Degtyareva
Yale Law Journal, Vol. 120, 2010

The Citizenship Clause: A 'Legislative History'
By Garrett Epps, University of Baltimore School of Law
June 20, 2010

The Constitutionality of the Taxation Consequences for Renouncing U.S. Citizenship
By William Thomas Worster, The Hague University
Florida Tax Review, Vol. 9, No. 11, 2010


New from the German Marshall Fund

All or Nothing?
By Patrick Weil
Immigration Paper Series 2010, July 14, 2010 /…

Climate Change and Migration Series, June 2010

Developing Adequate Humanitarian Responses
By Sarah Collinson

Migration, the Environment and Climate Change: Assessing the Evidence
By Frank Laczko

Climate Change and Migration: Key Issues for Legal Protection of Migrants and Displaced Persons
By Michelle Leighton

Climate Change and International Migration
By Susan F. Martin

Climate Change, Agricultural Development, and Migration
By Philip Martin

Climate Change, Migration, and Adaption
By Susan F. Martin

Climate Change, Migration, and Conflict: Receiving Communities under Pressure
By Andrea Warnecke, Dennis Tanzler, and Ruth Vollmer

Assessing Institutional and Governance Needs Related to Environmental Change and Human Migration
By Koko Warner


New from the Immigration Prof Blog

Briefing Guide to “Secure Communities”-- ICE’s controversial immigration enforcement program new statistics and information reveal disturbing trends and leave crucial questions unanswered
Center for Constitutional Rights, July 2010…

Beyond Borders: Exploring Links between Trafficking, Globalisation, and Security
Global Alliance Against Traffic in Women, 2010

Wayne Smith and Hugo Armendariz et al, v. United States
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, July 12, 2010…

Ironbound Underground: Wage Theft and Workplace Violations Among Day Laborers in Newark's East Ward
By Bryan Lonegan and Anjana Malhotra
Seton Hall University School of Law, July 2010…

Virginia Attorney General Opinion on Police Inquiries of Immigration Status
July 30, 2010


New from the International Organization for Migration

Intra-Regional Labour Mobility in the Arab World
July 2010…

IOM Gender and Migration
Issue 35, July 2010…

Migration in Nigeria: A Country Profile 2009
By Adejumoke Afolayan
July 2010

International Migration Law and Policies: Responding to Migration Challenges in Western and Northern Africa
Round Table, December 2009

Migration for Development in the Horn of Africa: Health expertise from the Somali diaspora in Finland
Edited by Thomas Lothar Weiss

Migrants’ right to health in Southern Africa
By George Mukundi Wachira…


Charity and self-help: Migrants' social networks and health care in the homeland
By Abdoulaye Kane
Anthropology Today, Vol. 26, No. 4, August 2010…


Race, Class, Gender, and Social Space: Using an Intersectional Approach to Study Immigration Attitudes
By Justin Allen Berg
The Sociological Quarterly, Vol. 51, No. 2, Spring 2010…


Linkages among climate change, crop yields and Mexico–US cross-border migration
By Shuaizhang Fenga, Alan B. Kruegera, and Michael Oppenheimera
The National Academy of Sciences, July 2010


Ethnic minority immigrants and their children in Britain
By Christian Dustmann and Nikolaos Theodoropoulos
Oxford Economic Papers, Vol. 62, No. 2, April 22, 2010…


Ethnic Population Projections for the U.K. and Local Areas, 2001-2051
By Pia Wohland, Phil Rees, Paul Norman, Peter Boden, and Martyna Jasinska
School of Geography, University of Leeds, July 2010…


Measuring the Effectiveness of Border Security Between Ports-of-Entry
By Henry H. Willis, Joel B. Predd, Paul K. Davis, and Wayne P. Brown

RAND Corporation, 66 pp.

Paperback, ISBN: 0833049771, $20.00

Book Description: This report offers research and recommendations on ways to measure the overall efforts of the national border-security enterprise between ports of entry. Focusing on three missions--illegal drug control, counterterrorism, and illegal migration--this report recommends ways to measure performance of U.S. border-security efforts in terms of interdiction, deterrence, and exploiting networked intelligence.


The Local Dimension of Migration Policymaking
By Tiziana Caponio and Maren Borkert

Amsterdam University Press, 202 pp.

Paperback, ISBN: 9089642323, $49.95

Book Description: This book prompts a fresh look on immigrant integration policy. Revealing just where immigrants and their receiving societies interact everyday, it shows how societal inclusion is administered and produced at a local level. The studies presented focus on three issue areas of migration policy - citizenship, welfare services and religious diversity - and consider cities in very different national contexts. Spanning Switzerland, Italy, Germany, the Netherlands and Canada, the cases display great variety in their theoretical and methodological approaches. In all the countries considered, we see that the local level has an undeniable relevance despite differences in state structures, models of integration and centre-peripheral relations. Particularly for future migration policy research, such a complex comparative exercise thus yields an important universal realisation: the local dimension of migration policymaking matters.


Safe Haven?: A History of Refugees in America
By David Haines

Kumarian Press, 256

Hardcover, ISBN: 156549332X, $62.06

Paperback, ISBN: 1565493311, $27.50

Book Description: The notion of America as land of refuge is vital to American civic consciousness yet over the past seventy years the country has had a complicated and sometimes erratic relationship with its refugee populations. Attitudes and actions toward refugees from the government, voluntary organizations, and the general public have ranged from acceptance to rejection; from well-wrought program efforts to botched policy decisions.

Drawing on a wide range of contemporary and historical material, and based on the author’s three-decade experience in refugee research and policy, Safe Haven? provides an integrated portrait of this crucial component of American immigration—and of American engagement with the world. Covering seven decades of immigration history, Haines shows how refugees and their American hosts continue to struggle with national and ethnic identities and the effect this struggle has had on American institutions and attitudes.


American Immigration Policy: Confronting the Nation's Challenges
By Steven G. Koven and Frank Gotzke

Springer, 290 pp.

Hardcover, ISBN: 0387959394, $116.60

Book Description: The mission of this book is to counter the apocalyptic vision of the American “invasion” with a more balanced account of the consequences of immigration. The book will examine how the United States has dealt with immigration through enactment of various public policies over time. It will approach the issue from a political, economic and cultural perspective with an emphasis on the qualitative, positive contributions of immigrants. The goal of the book is to provide some individual depth to the larger discussion of immigration that typically is carried out at the “macro” level. It argues that immigration policy is cyclical, ranging from very open to very closed borders. Moreover, it asserts that it is difficult to measure the heterogeneous contributions of immigrants and therefore cost-benefit type assessments of immigration are limited. Case studies of how individual immigrants contribute to culture, politics or economic development of the United States offset empirical studies. The book will review previous immigration policy, data related to economic costs of immigration, literature relevant to the question of the dilution or preservation of “American culture”, and immigration policies of other Western nations. The book will look at alternative perspectives on integration including an Americanization, Anglo-conformity perspective, a new American, melting pot perspective, and the cultural pluralism perspective. These perspectives in turn influence the degree to which specific options such as guest workers, amnesty, specialized skill, family unification, border enforcement, employer sanctions or political asylum are prioritized. The combination of rigorous data analysis and engaging, qualitative narrative make this book’s contribution to the debate on immigration policy in the United States unique.


Taking Local Control: Immigration Policy Activism in U.S. Cities and States
Edited by Monica Varsanyi

Stanford University Press, 320 pp.

Hardcover, ISBN: 0804770263, $65.00

Paperback, ISBN: 0804770271, $22.45

Book Description: While state and local immigration policy activism in the U.S. has received widespread attention in the popular media, the scholarly literature has been dominated by studies of immigration policy at the federal level. This volume aims to fill the gap by offering perspectives from political scientists, legal scholars, sociologists, and geographers at the leading edge of this emerging field. Drawing on high profile case studies, the contributors seek to explain the explosion in state and local immigration policy activism, account for the policies that have been considered and passed, and explore the tensions that have emerged within communities and between different levels of government as a result.

This timely entrant into the study of state and local immigration policy also illuminates the significant challenges and opportunities of comprehensive immigration reform, highlights the range of issues at stake, and charts a future research agenda that will more deeply explore the impacts of these policies on immigrant communities.


The Making of the Mosaic: A History of Canadian Immigration Policy
By Ninette Kelley and M. Trebilcock

University of Toronto Press, Scholarly Publishing Division, 672 pp.

Paperback, ISBN: 0802095364, $39.95

Book Description: Immigration policy is a subject of intense political and public debate. In this second edition of the widely recognized and authoritative work The Making of the Mosaic, Ninette Kelley and Michael Trebilcock have thoroughly revised and updated their examination of the ideas, interests, institutions, and rhetoric that have shaped Canada's immigration history.

Beginning their study in the pre-Confederation period, the authors interpret major episodes in the evolution of Canadian immigration policy, including the massive deportations of the First World War and Depression eras as well as the Japanese-Canadian internship camps during World War Two. New chapters provide perspective on immigration in a post-9/11 world, where security concerns and a demand for temporary foreign workers play a defining role in immigration policy reform. A comprehensive and important work, The Making of the Mosaic clarifies the attitudes underlying each phase and juncture of immigration history, providing vital perspective on the central issues of immigration policy that continue to confront us today.


Asian Cross-border Marriage Migration: Demographic Patterns and Social Issues
Edited by Melody Chia-Wen Lu and Wen-Shan Yang

Amsterdam University Press, 264 pp.

Paperback, ISBN: 9089640541, $49.50

Book Description: Despite active scholarly interest in the phenomenon of cross-border marriage migration between Southeast and East Asia—a majority of which marriages are between men from wealthier regions and women from regions that are less economically developed—we know very little about who these women are and why they choose to marry and migrate. This volume provides an overview of the demographic patterns and social issues related to cross-border marriage in the past two decades, as well as case studies that consider the living experiences and strategies of cross-border families in the host societies, sending communities, and transnational networks of nations like Japan, South, Korea, Thailand, and Vietnam.


Newcomers, Outsiders, and Insiders: Immigrants and American Racial Politics in the Early Twenty-first Century
By Ronald Schmidt Sr., Rodney E. Hero, Andrew L. Aoki, and Yvette M Alex-Assensoh

University of Michigan Press, 336 pp.

Hardcover, ISBN: 0472117033, $70.00

Paperback, ISBN: 047203376X, $21.33

Book Description: Over the past four decades, the United States has experienced the largest influx of immigrants in its history. Not only has the ratio of European to non-European newcomers changed, but recent arrivals are coming from the Asian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, South America, and other regions which have not previously supplied many immigrants to the United States.

In this timely study, a team of political scientists examines how the arrival of these newcomers has affected the efforts of long-standing minority groups---Blacks, Latinos, and Asian Pacific Americans---to gain equality through greater political representation and power. The authors predict that, for some time to come, the United States will function as a complex multiracial hierarchy, rather than as a genuine democracy.


Immigration and Conflict in Europe
By Rafaela M. Dancygier

Cambridge University Press, 352 pp.

Paperback, ISBN: 052115023X, $26.09

Book Description: Contemporary debates give the impression that the presence of immigrants necessarily spells strife. Yet as Immigration and Conflict in Europe shows, the incidence of conflict involving immigrants and their descendants has varied widely across groups, cities, and countries. The book presents a theory to account for this uneven pattern, explaining why we observe clashes between immigrants and natives in some locations but not in others and why some cities experience confrontations between immigrants and state actors while others are spared from such conflicts. The book addresses how economic conditions interact with electoral incentives to account for immigrant-native and immigrant-state conflict across groups and cities within Great Britain as well as across Germany and France. The author highlights the importance of national immigration regimes and local political economies in shaping immigrants' economic position and political behavior, demonstrating how economic and electoral forces, rather than cultural differences, determine patterns of conflict and calm.


Vol. 42, No. 2, June 2010

Selected articles:

`Why do they hate us?' Reframing immigration through participatory action research
By Caitlin Cahill…

`No one gives you a chance to say what you are thinking': finding space for children's agency in the UK asylum system
By Heaven Crawley…

Migration politics in Ireland: exploring the impacts on young people's geographies
By Naomi Bushin and Allen White…


International Journal of Refugee Law
Vol. 22, No. 3, October 2010


What Assumptions about Human Behaviour Underlie Asylum Judgments?
By Jane Herlihy, Kate Gleeson, and Stuart Turner

The Mandate Refugee Program: a Critical Discussion
By Katia Bianchini

Beyond Borders: Cosmopolitanism and Family Reunification for Refugees in Canada
By Andrea Bradley

Human Rights, Non-refoulement and the Protection of Refugees in Hong Kong
By Kelley Loper


International Migration
Vol. 48, No. 4, August 2010


Untold Stories: Biases and Selection Effects in Research with Victims of Trafficking for Sexual Exploitation
By Anette Brunovskis and Rebecca Surtees…

Trafficking in Persons and Development: Towards Greater Policy Coherence
By Gergana Danailova-Trainor and Frank Laczko…

Biopolitical Management, Economic Calculation and “Trafficked Women”
By Jacqueline Berman…

Economics of Human Trafficking
By Elizabeth M. Wheaton, Edward J. Schauer, and Thomas V. Galli…

Trafficking and Contract Migrant Workers in the Middle East By Ray Jureidini…

Minors Travelling Alone: A Risk Group for Human Trafficking? By Ilse Derluyn, Valesca Lippens, Tony Verachtert, Willy Bruggeman…


Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Vol. 36, Issue 8, August 2010

Selected articles:

Examining ‘Expatriate’ Continuities: Postcolonial Approaches to Mobile Professionals
By Anne-Meike Fechter and Katie Walsh

‘New Shanghailanders’ or ‘New Shanghainese’: Western Expatriates' Narratives of Emplacement in Shanghai
By James Farrer

‘Realising the Self and Developing the African’: German Immigrants in Namibia
By Heidi Armbruster

From ‘Trucial State’ to ‘Postcolonial’ City? The Imaginative Geographies of British Expatriates in Dubai
By Anne Coles and Katie Walsh


Migration News
Volume 17 No. 3, July 2010


Arizona, Polls, REPAIR
Arizona enacted a law in April 2010 making it a crime for unauthorized foreigners to be in the state, prompting Senate Democrats to announce a "framework" for a comprehensive immigration reform bill ahead of demonstrations on May 1, 2010 in cities across the US in support of legalization. Despite the Democrats' proposal being more enforcement-oriented than the comprehensive immigration reform bill approved by the Senate in 2006, Republicans predicted it would be difficult to enact immigration reform in 2010. President Obama seemed to agree, saying: "I want to begin work this year" on immigration reform.

DHS: Border, Interior, USCIS, Data
Some of the expensive projects rushed from lab to field by the Department of Homeland Security to prevent entries over the Mexico-US border have proven to be expensive failures, including the $1.1 billion "virtual fence" partially built by Boeing before being abandoned, radiation detectors from Raytheon that cost $822,000 each and gave too many false alarms, and $30 million worth of "air puffers" at airport screening stations that did not work consistently to detect traces of explosives. Author Faddis argues that DHS spent money on unproved new technologies because it was lobbied by tech firms rather than using low-budget strategies known to work, such as bomb-sniffing dogs.

Labor, H-1B, Education
The US unemployment rate fell from 9.9 percent in April 2010 to 9.7 percent in May 2010 as the economy added 431,000 jobs, including 411,000 temporary Census jobs. More Americans are joining the labor force, helping to explain the high unemployment rate despite job growth. Some 15.3 million US workers were jobless, including 6.8 million who were without work for 27 weeks or more.

Canada, Mexico
Canada plans to admit about 265,000 immigrants in 2010, including 157,000 in the economic stream; 71,000 for family unification; and 37,000 refugees and successful asylum applicants.

South America
In 2008, the US had about 11.4 million Mexican-born residents, followed by 3.4 million born in Caribbean countries, 2.8 million born in Central America, and 2.6 million born in South America.


People and Place
Vol. 18, No. 2, 2010

Net overseas migration: why is it so high?
By Bob Birrell and Ernest Healy


Rural Migration News
Volume 16 No. 3, July 2010


California: Prisons, Air, Budget
The eight San Joaquin Valley counties from San Joaquin in the north to Kern in the south have unemployment rates that are four to eight points higher than the state's 12.4 percent in May 2010, when the US rate was 9.8 percent. The unemployment rates in Fresno and other SJV counties were almost 17 percent.

Fremont, Agriprocessors, FLSA
Hispanics are less than 10 percent of the residents of Fremont, Nebraska, which voted 57-43 percent on June 21, 2010 to punish landlords who rent to unauthorized foreigners and employers who hire them; employers must use E-Verify to check new hires. Fremont has 25,000 residents and 15,000 registered voters.

Rural Development
North Dakota has the lowest state unemployment rate among states, four percent. However, there is often insufficient housing for workers moving to work in North Dakota oil fields; some live in mobile homes or trailers. With the number of oil rigs tapping the Bakken Formation rising, rig workers with well-paid jobs are struggling to find housing (the Bakken Formation may have two to three billion barrels of recoverable oil). Some park their mobile homes in trailer parks that were abandoned after an oil boom in the 1980s ended.