Immigration Reading List, 7/15/11

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House testimony on maritime border security
2. House testimony on Homeland Security investigations
3. Latest issues of DOJ EOIR Immigration Law Advisor
4. Latest issue of CBP magazine, Frontline
5. CRS reports on visa security, TPS, and asylum
6. GAO report on TSA efforts to improve security



Gallup poll: Americans' views on immigration
8. New report from TRAC
9. New report from the Pew Hispanic Center
10. Two new reports from the Institute for the Study of Labor
11. Two new reports from the Migration Policy Institute
12. Nine new and recent papers from the Social Science Research Network
13. Three new publications from the International Organization for Migration
14. New report from the OECD
15. "Economic Migration and Happiness: Comparing Immigrants’ and Natives’ Happiness Gains From Income"
16. "Highly-skilled Colombian immigrants in Spain: Do they have to return home to start up in business?"
17. "Achieving Anew: How New Immigrants Do in American Schools, Jobs, and Neighborhoods"



Immigration, Assimilation, and Homeland Security
19. The Borders of Integration: Polish Migrants in Germany and the United States, 1870-1924
20. Are Human Rights for Migrants?: Critical Reflections on the Status of Irregular Migrants in Europe and the United States
21. Beyond the Borderlands: Migration and Belonging in the United States and Mexico
22. Rallying for Immigrant Rights: The Fight for Inclusion in 21st Century America
23. Beyond la Frontera: The History of Mexico-U.S. Migration
24. Regulating the International Movement of Women: From Protection to Control
25. Turks in Europe: From Guest Worker to Transnational Citizen
26. Asian Refugees in America: Narratives of Escape and Adaptation
27. Chinese Migrants in Russia, Central Asia and Eastern Europe



Ethnic and Racial Studies
29. International Journal of Refugee Law
30. International Migration
31. International Migration Review
32. Migration News
33. Rural Migration News

House Committee on Homeland Security
Subcommittee on Border and Maritime Security
Tuesday, July 12, 2011…

Protecting the Maritime Borders - Leveraging Law Enforcement Cooperation to Enhance Security Along America’s Coasts

Statement by Chairman Candice Miller:
(Video at link)

Witness Testimony:

Michael C. Kostelnik, Assistant Commissioner
Office of CBP Air and Marine
U.S. Customs and Border Protection
Department of Homeland Security…

Rear Admiral Paul F. Zukunft
Assistant Commandant for Marine Safety
Security and Stewardship
United States Coast Guard…

Tim Donnellon, Sheriff
St. Clair County Sheriff’s Office, Michigan…

Adrian Garcia, Sheriff
Harris County Sheriff's Office, Texas…


House Committee on Homeland Security
Subcommittee on Oversight, Investigations, and Management
Thursday, July 7, 2011…

Homeland Security Investigations: Examining DHS’s Efforts to Protect American Jobs and Secure the Homeland

Statement by Chairman Michael McCaul:
(Video at link)

Witness Testimony:

Brian Toohey, President
Semiconductor Industry Association…

Michael Russo, Director of Global Security and Product Protection
Eli Lilly and Company…

Mario Mancuso, Partner
Fried, Frank, Harris, Shriver & Jacobson LLP…

Jena Baker-McNeill, Senior Policy Analyst, Homeland Security
The Heritage Foundation…


Fruit or Vegetable? Supreme Court To Decide if Tax Fraud is “Fraud” Under Section 101(a)(43)(M)(i) of the Act
By Edward R. Grant
Immigration Law Advisor, Vol. 5 No. 5, May-June, 2011


U.S. Customs and Border Protection
Vol. 4, No. 2, Spring 2011


Visa Security Policy: Roles of the Departments of State and Homeland Security
By Ruth Ellen Wasem
CRS Report for Congress, June 30, 2011

Temporary Protected Status: Current Immigration Policy and Issues
By Ruth Ellen Wasem and Karma Ester
CRS Report for Congress, June 30, 2011

Asylum and "Credible Fear" Issues in U.S. Immigration Policy
By Ruth Ellen Wasem
CRS Report for Congress, June 29, 2011


New from the General Accountability Office

TSA Has Taken Actions to Improve Security, but Additional Efforts Remain
Statement of Stephen M. Lord, Director
Homeland Security and Justice Issues
GAO-11-807T, July 13, 2011…


Americans' Views on Immigration Holding Steady
Plurality continues to prefer decreased immigration levels
By Jeffrey M. Jones
Gallup Poll, June 22, 2011…

Views of Immigration, by Political Party
% Should be increased % Should be kept at present level % Should be decreased


New from the Transactional Records Access Clearinghouse, Syracuse University

Immigration Judge Reports — Asylum
July 2011

Very timely information about the asylum decisions of 233 individual judges in the nation's special Immigration Courts is now available in a newly updated application developed by the Transactional Records Access Clearinghouse (TRAC). This is the sixth year TRAC has prepared this annual report series, which covers each of the 50 separate cities in which these Immigration Courts are based.

This year's reports, based upon asylum decisions made during the period FY
2006 to FY 2011 (through May 4), were obtained by TRAC under the Freedom of Information Act from the Department of Justice's Executive Office for Immigration Review (EOIR). The new data are part of TRAC's continual effort to obtain and present to the public the most recent information about the operation of these courts.

For each of the 50 courts, an individual report is available for each judge who served on that court and made at least 100 asylum decisions. There are a total of 265 reports in the series this year, since some judges served on more than one court during the six-year period.

Each judge's asylum denial rate is compared with all of the judges in that particular court as well as with the denial rates of judges throughout the United States. Further details on the composition of the asylum caseload each judge handled, including representation and the nationality of the asylum seeker, are presented and compared with patterns for the nation as a whole.


The Mexican-American Boom: Births Overtake Immigration
By Paul Taylor, Mark Hugo Lopez, Gretchen Livingston, and Jeffrey Passel
Pew Hispanic Center, July 14, 2011


New from the Institute for the Study of Labor

1. The Evils of Forced Migration: Do Integration Policies Alleviate Migrants' Economic Situations?
By Oliver Falck, Stephan Heblich, and Susanne Link
IZA Discussion Paper No. 5829, June 2011

2. International Migration, Imperfect Information, and Brain Drain
By Eleonora Patacchini and Yves Zenou
IZA Discussion Paper No. 5787, June 2011


New from the Migration Policy Institute

1. Labor Standards Enforcement and Low-Wage Immigrants: Creating an Effective Enforcement System,
By Donald Kerwin and Kristen McCabe

2. The Basics of E-Verify, the US Employer Verification System
By Marc Rosenblum and Lang Hoyt
Migration Information Source, July 2011


New from the Social Science Research Network

1. Re-Thinking Illegal Entry and Re-Entry
By Doug Keller
Georgetown University Law Center, July 2011

2. Comprehensive Immigration Reform: Becoming Americans - U.S. Immigrant Integration
By Rubén G. Rumbaut
University of California, Irvine Department of Sociology, July 2011

3. Lessons from the Past: How the Antebellum Fugitive Slave Debate Informs State Enforcement of Federal Immigration Law
By James Adam Kraehenbuehl
University of Chicago Law Review, Vol. 78, No. 4, 2011

4. A Language Graveyard? The Evolution of Language Competencies, Preferences and Use Among Young Adult Children of Immigrants
By Rubén G. Rumbaut
University of California, Irvine Department of Sociology, July 2011

5. How Long is Too Long? A Preliminary Examination of the Practice of Protracted Immigration Detention in Canada
By Stephanie J. Silverman
University of Oxford - COMPAS/Department of Politics and International Relations
4th Annual Ethnic and Pluralism Studies Graduate Research Conference, January 2011

6. The Upside of Accents: Language, Skin Tone, and Attitudes Toward Immigration
By Daniel Hopkins
Georgetown University, July 7, 2011

7. Examining the Role of Deferred Action in Immigration Law
By Shoba Sivaprasad Wadhia
The Pennsylvania State University, July 2011

8. Local Immigration Prosecution: A Study of Arizona Before SB 1070
By Ingrid V. Eagly
UCLA Law Review, Vol. 58, 2011, UCLA School of Law Research Paper No. 11-21

9. Earned Citizenship: Property Lessons for Immigration Reform
By Ayelet Shachar
University of Toronto Faculty of Law
Yale Journal of Law and the Humanities, Vol. 23, 2011


New from the International Organization for Migration

1. The Immigration and Border Management Programme Newsletter
July 2011…

2. An Analysis of Migration Health in Kenya
July 2011…

3. Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation in IOM’s Response to Environmental Migration
July 2011


New from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

International Migration Outlook 2011
July, 2011…


Economic Migration and Happiness: Comparing Immigrants’ and Natives’ Happiness Gains From Income
Social Indicators Research, Vol. 103, No. 1, August 2011…


Highly-skilled Colombian immigrants in Spain: Do they have to return home to start up in business?
By Esther Hormiga
Education + Training, Vol. 53, No. 5, June 2011…


Achieving Anew: How New Immigrants Do in American Schools, Jobs, and Neighborhoods
By Sarah E. Bohn
Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. 49, No. 2, May 2011


Immigration, Assimilation, and Homeland Security
By Yoku Shaw-Taylor

Government Institutes, 240 pp.

Hardcover, ISBN: 1605907197, $35.91

Book Description: This book presents a comprehensive view of the relationship between immigration and homeland security, and unique challenges that relationship poses. It begins with a history of immigration going back to 1789. It then examines developments in immigration policy, especially since 9/11, and the difficulties it presented for border security and immigration reform. Finally it offers a view to the future of immigration policy and the demands of securing the homeland. This book is presented in an accessible and entertaining way, and includes real-life stories of difficult incidents that arise due to the complicated relationship between immigration and homeland security.


The Borders of Integration: Polish Migrants in Germany and the United States, 1870-1924
By Brian Joseph McCook

Ohio University Press, 296 pp.

Hardcover, ISBN: 0821419250, $55.00

Paperback, ISBN: 0821419269, $26.95

Book Description: The issues of immigration and integration are at the forefront of contemporary politics. Yet debates over foreign workers and the desirability of their incorporation into European and American societies too often are discussed without a sense of history. McCook’s examination questions static assumptions about race and white immigrant assimilation a hundred years ago, highlighting how the Polish immigrant experience is relevant to present-day immigration debates on both sides of the Atlantic. Further, his research shows the complexity of attitudes toward immigration in Germany and the United States, challenging historical myths surrounding German national identity and the American “melting pot.”

In a comparative study of Polish migrants who settled in the Ruhr Valley and northeastern Pennsylvania, McCook shows that in both regions, Poles become active citizens within their host societies through engagement in social conflict within the public sphere to defend their ethnic, class, gender, and religious interests. While adapting to the Ruhr and northeastern Pennsylvania, Poles simultaneously retained strong bonds with Poland, through remittances, the exchange of letters, newspapers, and frequent return migration. In this analysis of migration in a globalizing world, McCook highlights the multifaceted ways in which immigrants integrate into society, focusing in particular on how Poles created and utilized transnational spaces to mobilize and attain authentic and more permanent identities grounded in newer broadly conceived notions of citizenship.


Are Human Rights for Migrants?: Critical Reflections on the Status of Irregular Migrants in Europe and the United States
By Marie-Benedicte Dembour and Tobias Kelly

Routledge, 264 pp.

Hardcover, ISBN: 0415619068, $115.49

Book Description: Human rights seemingly offer universal protection. However, irregular migrants have, at best, only problematic access to human rights. Whether understood as an ethical injunction or legally codified norm, the promised protection of human rights seems to break down when it comes to the lived experience of irregular migrants. This book therefore asks three key questions of great practical and theoretical importance. First, what do we mean when we speak of human rights? Second, is the problematic access of irregular migrants to human rights protection an issue of implementation, or is it due to the inherent characteristics of the concept of human rights? Third, should we look beyond human rights for an effective source of protection? Written is an accessible style, with a range of socio-legal and doctrinal approaches, the chapters focus on the situation of the irregular migrant in Europe and the United States. Throughout the book, nuanced theoretical debates are put in the context of concrete case studies. The critical reflections it offers on the limitations and possibilities of human rights protections for irregular migrants will be invaluable for students, scholars and practitioners.


Beyond the Borderlands: Migration and Belonging in the United States and Mexico
By Debra Lattanzi Shutika

University of California Press, 312 pp.

Hardcover, ISBN: 0520269586, $65.00

Paperback, ISBN: 0520269594, $26.28

Kindle, 1123 KB, ASIN: B00594454Y, 312 pp., $9.99

Book Description: Since the 1990s, migration from Mexico to the United States has moved beyond the borderlands to diverse communities across the country, with the most striking transformations in American suburbs and small towns. This study explores the challenges encountered by Mexican families as they endeavor to find their place in the U.S. by focusing on Kennett Square, a small farming village in Pennsylvania known as the "Mushroom Capital of the World." In a highly readable account based on extensive fieldwork among Mexican migrants and their American neighbors, Debra Lattanzi Shutika explores the issues of belonging and displacement that are central concerns for residents in communities that have become new destinations for Mexican settlement. Beyond the Borderlands also completes the circle of migration by following migrant families as they return to their hometown in Mexico, providing an illuminating perspective of the tenuous lives of Mexicans residing in, but not fully part of, two worlds.


Rallying for Immigrant Rights: The Fight for Inclusion in 21st Century America
Edited by Kim Voss and Irene Bloemraad

University of California Press, 336 pp.

Hardcover, ISBN: 0520267540, $60.00

Paperback, ISBN: 0520267559, $24.95

Kindle, 1473 KB, ASIN: B0059442RE, 336 pp., $9.99

Book Description: From Alaska to Florida, millions of immigrants and their supporters took to the streets across the United States to rally for immigrant rights in the spring of 2006. The scope and size of their protests, rallies, and boycotts made these the most significant events of political activism in the United States since the 1960s. This accessibly written volume offers the first comprehensive analysis of this historic moment. Perfect for students and general readers, its essays, written by a multidisciplinary group of scholars and grassroots organizers, trace the evolution and legacy of the 2006 protest movement in engaging, theoretically informed discussions. The contributors cover topics including unions, churches, the media, immigrant organizations, and immigrant politics. Today, one in eight U.S. residents was born outside the country, but for many, lack of citizenship makes political voice through the ballot box impossible. This book helps us better understand how immigrants are making their voices heard in other ways.


Beyond la Frontera: The History of Mexico-U.S. Migration
By Mark Overmyer-Velazquez

Oxford University Press, USA, 400 pp.

Paperback, ISBN: 0195382226, $25.95

Book Description: Providing a comprehensive and up-to-date historical overview of Mexican migration to the U.S., Beyond la Frontera: The History of Mexico-U.S. Migration examines the transnational and historical impact of migratory trends as they developed in Mexico and the U.S. from the mid-nineteenth century to the present day. Featuring essays by leading authors in the field, the book utilizes both a chronological and thematic structure, referencing mutually influential periods in Mexican and Mexican-American history. Taking into consideration the bi-national historical factors and narrative constructions of Mexican migration, Beyond la Frontera also describes how we may better understand the persistent legislative debates surrounding migrant rights and national sovereignty.


Regulating the International Movement of Women: From Protection to Control
Edited by Sharron FitzGerald

Routledge, 216 pp.

Hardcover, ISBN: 041557949X, $115.49

Book Description: The question of how to conceptualize the relationships between governments and the everyday lives of women has long been the focus of attention among feminists. Feminist scholarship critiques women’s lives, experiences and gender inequality in a variety of contexts. In this age of increased internationalism, we are witness to government actor’s attempts to use women’s alleged ‘vulnerability’ to justify its humanitarian interventions. Regulating the International Movement of Women interrogates western government’s uses of discourses of human vulnerability as a tool to regulate non-western women’s migration. In this collection of provocatively argued essays, the contributors wish to reclaim the concept of racialised and gendered vulnerability, from its under theorized, and thus, ambiguous location in feminist’s theory, in a variety of methodological and geographical contexts. The book addresses the human geographer, the socio-legal and critical scholar, the sociologist, the cultural, postcolonial and political theorists and practitioners. This unique text will be of value to academics, postgraduate and research students of any of the above disciplines, as well as practitioners interested in theoretical and empirical discussions of the state, normativity and the regulation of women ‘s cross-border mobility.


Turks in Europe: From Guest Worker to Transnational Citizen
By Nermin Abadan-Unat

Berghahn Books, 328 pp.

Hardcover, ISBN: 1845454251, $90.00

Book Description: One of the foremost scholars on Turkish migration, the author offers in this work the summary of her experiences, research, books, and articles on Turkish migration since 1963. During these forty years her aim has been threefold: to explain the journeys made by thousands of Turkish men and women to foreign lands out of choice, necessity, or invitation; to shed light on the difficulties they faced; and to elaborate on how their lives were affected by the legal, political, social, and economic measures in the countries where they settled. The extensive research done both in Turkey and in Europe into the lives of individuals directly and indirectly affected by the migration phenomenon and the examination of these research results further enhances the value of this wide-ranging study as a definitive reference work.


Asian Refugees in America: Narratives of Escape and Adaptation
By Eleanor Herz Swent

McFarland, 240 pp.

Paperback, ISBN: 0786463392, $45.00

Book Description: When Eleanor Swent began teaching English as a Second Language at an Oakland, California, Adult Education Center in 1967, she soon learned that many of the Asian immigrants in her classes had remarkable tales to tell of their struggles in their homelands and their efforts to make new lives in America. This oral history, based on interviews Swent conducted with her students over thirty years, documents the Asian immigrant experience as never before. Here are the stories of desperate individuals who swam to escape from China to Macao and Hong Kong; of Chinese daughters considered worthless by their families; of political refugees from Vietnam; of ethnic Chinese who fled by boat from Vietnam; of refugees from the genocide in Cambodia. As these remarkable new Americans learn different words and customs, they also enlarge our national vision, enriching our culture while assuring us that human dignity can rise above terrible circumstances.


Chinese Migrants in Russia, Central Asia and Eastern Europe
By Felix B. Chang and Sunnie T. Rucker-Chang

Routledge, 256 pp.

Hardcover, ISBN: 0415578744, $129.23

Book Description: Much of the former Soviet bloc has become a destination for new Chinese migrants. Throughout Russia, Eastern Europe, and Central Asia, Chinese migrants are engaged in entrepreneurial activities, primarily as petty merchants of consumer goods in unsteady economies. This book situates these migrants within the broader context of Chinese globalization and China’s economic "rise." It traces the origins of Chinese migration into the region, as well as the conditions that have allowed migrants to thrive. Furthermore, it discusses the perception that Chinese globalization is purely economic and explores the relationship among petty merchants, labourers, and institutional investors. Finally, by examining the movement of China’s minorities into Central Asia, this book challenges the ethnic construct of new "Chinese" migration.


Ethnic and Racial Studies
Vol. 34, No. 8, August 2011

Selected articles:

Irregular migration in a globalizing world
By Alice Bloch and Milena Chimienti

Migration routes and strategies of young undocumented migrants in England: a qualitative perspective
By Alice Bloch, Nando Sigona, and Roger Zetter

The uneasy ties of working and belonging: the changing situation for undocumented Zimbabwean migrants in northern South Africa
By Blair Rutherford

Navigating the US-Mexico border: the crossing strategies of undocumented workers in Tijuana, Mexico
By Sergio Chávez

Mobilization of irregular migrants in Europe: a comparative analysis
By Milena Chimienti

The negotiation of irregular migrants' right to education in Germany: a challenge to the nation-state
By Barbara Laubenthal

Social effects of mass deportations by the United States government, 2000–10
By Jacqueline Maria Hagan, Nestor Rodriguez, and Brianna Castro

Turning refugees into ‘illegal migrants’: Afghan asylum seekers in Europe
By Liza Schuster


International Journal of Refugee Law
Vol. 23, No. 3, October 2011


No Refuge: Flawed Status Determination and the Failures of South Africa's Refugee System to Provide Protection
By Roni Amit

Protecting Victims of Human Trafficking Within a ‘Non-Refoulement’ Framework: is Complementary Protection an Effective Alternative in Canada and Australia?
By Udara Jayasinghe and Sasha Baglay

Cessation and Assessment of New Circumstances: a Comment on Abdulla, CJEU, 2 March 2010
By Roger Errera

A Double Bind: Malta and the Rescue of Unwanted Migrants at Sea, a Legal Anthropological Perspective on the Humanitarian Law of the Sea
By Silja Klepp


International Migration
Vol. 49, No. 4, August 2011


Impact of the Group of Co-migrants on Strategies of Acculturation: Towards an Expansion of the Berry Model
By Erik H. Cohen…

Post-urbanism, Incorporation, and Migration
By Jacqueline Olvera and Douglas Rae…


The Integration of Immigrants in Sweden: a Model for the European Union?
By Anja Wiesbrock…

Voting and Social Inclusion in Sweden
By Peter Bevelander and Ravi Pendakur…

When Will the Russians Come? On Post-Soviet Immigration and Integration in Sweden
By Jenny Olofsson and Gunnar Malmberg…

The Native-Immigrant Income Gap among the Self-Employed in Sweden
By Pernilla Andersson Joona…

Immigrants’ Returns to Schooling in Sweden
By Martin Nordin…

Asylum Seekers and Undocumented Migrants’ Increased Social Rights in Sweden
By Hans E. Andersson and Susanna Nilsson…


International Migration
Vol. 49, No. 3, June 2011


The Transnational Political Participation of Latin American and Caribbean Migrants Residing in Europe
By Jean-Michel Lafleur…

Engagement Policies and Practices: Expanding the Citizenship of the Brazilian Diaspora
By Beatriz Padilla…

The Transnational Governance of Ecuadorian Migration through Co-Development
By Almudena Cortés Maisonave…

Reminiscences, Patriotism, Participation: Approaching External Voting in Ecuadorian Immigration to Italy
By Paolo Boccagni…

Assessing Emigrant Participation in Home Country Elections: The Case of Mexico’s 2006 Presidential Election
By Jean-Michel Lafleur and Leticia Calderón Chelius

The “Diaspora Politics” of Colombian Migrants in the UK and Spain
By Anastasia Bermudez…

The Transnational Political Practices of Chilean Migrants in Switzerland
By Claudio Bolzman…

The Transnational Political Practices of “Latin American Italians”
By Guido Tintori…


International Migration Review
Vol. 45, No. 2, Summer 2011


Human Smuggling in Austria: A Comparative Analysis of Data on Smuggled Migrants from Former Yugoslavia and the Russian Federation
By Daniela Peterka-Benton…

“Foreign Brides” Meet Ethnic Politics in Taiwan (pages 243–268)
By Ming-Chang Tsai…

Partner Selection and Divorce in Ethnic Minorities: Distinguishing Between Two Types of Ethnic Homogamous Marriages
By Mieke C. W. Eeckhaut, John Lievens, Bart Van de Putte and Patrick Lusyne…

Cultural Dissimilarity and Intermarriage. A Longitudinal Study of Immigrants in Sweden 1990–2005
By Martin Dribe and Christer Lundh…

Decoupling Migration Effects from Income Effects on Reproduction in Central American Migrant-Sending Households
By Jason Davis…

The Educational Legacy of Unauthorized Migration: Comparisons Across U.S.-Immigrant Groups in How Parents’ Status Affects Their Offspring
By Frank D. Bean, Mark A. Leach, Susan K. Brown, James D. Bachmeier and John R Hipp…

Contextualizing Ethnic Educational Inequality: The Role of Stability and Quality of Neighborhoods and Ethnic Density in Second-Generation Attainment
By Fenella Fleischmann, Karen Phalet, Karel Neels and Patrick Deboosere…

Cognitive and Language Skills of Turkish Children in Germany: A Comparison of the Second and Third Generation and Mixed Generational Groups
By Birgit Becker…

Acquisition of Cross-Ethnic Friends by Recent Immigrants in Canada: A Longitudinal Approach
By Borja Martinovic, Frank van Tubergen and Ineke Maas…


Migration News
Volume 18 No. 3, July 2011


States: Enforcement
Arizona. The US Supreme Court in May 2011 upheld Arizona's Legal Arizona Workers Act in a 5-3 decision. LAWA, signed into law by then-governor and and now-DHS Secretary Janet Napolitano, requires Arizona employers to use E-Verify to check new hires and allows the state to revoke the business licenses of employers who repeatedly hire illegal immigrants.

Reform: Obama, Congress
President Obama in spring 2011 several times urged Congress to enact comprehensive immigration reforms that include stepped-up border and interior enforcement to detect and deter illegal immigration as well as legalization for most of the unauthorized foreigners in the US. Advocates of comprehensive immigration reform met almost weekly with Obama in April-May 2011. Obama repeated his commitment to comprehensive immigration reform in Florida on April 29, 2011 and called on Republicans to support it in El Paso on May 10, 2011, asserting that the Mexico-US border has been secured.

DHS: Border, Interior, USCIS
Border. Apprehensions of unauthorized foreigners just inside the Mexico-US border dropped from 1.7 million in FY2000 to 463,000 in FY10. The number of apprehensions, which averaged about 1.1 million a year between 2004 and 2006, has been falling steadily. There were 877,000 apprehensions in FY07, 724,000 in FY08, and 556,000 in FY09. Over 95 percent of Border Patrol apprehensions occur on the Mexico-US border, and over 85 percent of those apprehended are Mexicans.

Labor, Immigrants, H-1B
The US economy added 54,000 jobs in May 2011, down from 244,000 jobs added in April 2011; the unemployment rate rose to 9.1 percent from nine almost 40 million foreign-born residents, and less than a quarter of these immigrants were non-Hispanic whites.

Population, Health, Education
In 1970, the US had fewer than 10 million foreign-born residents; three-fourths of the foreign-born were non-Hispanic whites. In 2010, the US had almost 40 million foreign-born residents, and less than a quarter of these immigrants were non-Hispanic whites.

Canada, Mexico
Canada has a high rate of immigration, accepting about 250,000 immigrants a year (280,000 in 2010). High levels of immigration and large numbers of migrant workers are generally accepted by Canadians who believe that immigration generates economic benefits. There is a backlog of over 600,000 foreigners hoping to be selected to immigrate to Canada.


Rural Migration News
Volume 17 No. 3, July 2011


AgJOBS; H-2A Hearing
The Agricultural Job Opportunity Benefits and Security Act (AgJOBS), a compromise negotiated by worker advocates and farm employers in December 2000, would legalize unauthorized foreigners who have done farm work and make it easier for farm employers to hire guest workers under the H-2A program. AgJOBS was included in the 2006 comprehensive immigration reform bill approved by the Senate and in the 2007 bill that was not approved. It has not been re-introduced in the 2011-12 Congress.

H-2A: AEWR, Global; H-2B
The number of jobs certified by DOL to be filled with H-2A workers reached a low of 30,000 in the mid-1990s. The number then began to rise, as more farm employers in more states requested H-2A workers.

DHS: Border, Interior Enforcement
Apprehensions of unauthorized foreigners just inside the Mexico-US border dropped from 1.7 million in FY2000 to 463,000 in FY10. The number of apprehensions, which averaged about 1.1 million a year between 2004 and 2006, has been falling steadily. There were 877,000 apprehensions in FY07, 724,000 in FY08, and 556,000 in FY09. Over 95 percent of Border Patrol apprehensions occur on the Mexico-US border, and over 85 percent of those apprehended are Mexicans.

Canada, Mexico
Canada. The Supreme Court of Canada on April 29, 2011 decided 8-1 that an Ontario law, the Agricultural Employees Protection Act (AEPA), provided sufficient protections to farm workers under Section 2(d) of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The Supreme Court upheld Ontario's version of agricultural exceptionalism to protect family farms: the AEPA requires "good faith negotiations" between associations of farm workers and their employers but not collective bargaining with an exclusive bargaining representative selected by majority vote. All provinces except Ontario and Alberta give collective bargaining rights to farm workers.