Immigration Reading List, 2/14/13

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GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS


1. Senate testimony on "comprehensive immigration reform"
2. House testimony on immigration and enforcement
3. Latest issue of DOJ EOIR Immigration Law Advisor
4. E.U.: Migration and migrant population statistics
5. Netherlands: Population statistics


REPORTS, ARTICLES, ETC.


6. Four new reports from the Institute for the Study of Labor
7. Three new reports and features from the Migration Policy Institute
8. Seventeen new papers from the Social Science Research Network
9. Canada: New working paper from CERIS
10. Canada: Two new reports from Toronto Immigrant Employment Data Initiative (TIEDI)
11. Three new reports from the International Organization for Migration
12. New report from the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development
13. "Climate Change, Migration and Security"
14. "Turned Away"
15. "The Imperative of Place: Homicide and the New Latino Migration"
16. " 'No-One Ever Asked Me': The Invisible Experiences and Contribution of Australian Emigrant Teacher
17. "Integration Policy in Singapore: A Transnational Inclusion Approach"
18. "Migration as a Spiritual Pathway: Narratives of Chinese Falungong Practitioners in Singapore"
19. "The 287(g) Program: A Flawed and Obsolete Method of Immigration Enforcement"


BOOKS


20. The National Security Implications of Immigration Law
21. Migration, Culture, Conflict, Crime And Terrorism
22. Why Walls Won't Work: Repairing the US-Mexico Divide
23. Masculinity, Sexuality and Illegal Migration
24. Minority Internal Migration in Europe
25. Desi Dreams: Indian Immigrant Women Build Lives Across Two Worlds


JOURNALS


26. European Journal of Migration and Law
27. Global Networks
28. Human Mobility
29. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
30. Migration News
31. Refugee Survey Quarterly
32. REMHU
33. Rural Migration News
34. West European Politics

1.
Senate Committee on the Judiciary
Wednesday, February 13, 2013
http://www.judiciary.senate.gov/hearings/hearing.cfm?id=edb04882c2725d013ec8d198a622e257

"Comprehensive Immigration Reform"

Statement by Chairman Patrick Leahy
http://www.judiciary.senate.gov/pdf/2-13-13LeahyStatement.pdf

Witness Testimony:

Janet Napolitano
Secretary, U.S. Department of Homeland Security
http://www.judiciary.senate.gov/pdf/2-13-13NapolitanoTestimony.pdf

Jose Vargas
Founder, Define America
http://www.judiciary.senate.gov/pdf/2-13-13VargasTestimony.pdf

Jessica Vaughan
Director of Policy Studies, Center for Immigration Studies
http://www.judiciary.senate.gov/pdf/2-13-13VaughanTestimony.pdf

Steve Case
Chairman and CEO, Revolution
http://www.judiciary.senate.gov/pdf/2-13-13CaseTestimony.pdf

Chris Crane
President, National Immigration and Customs Enforcement Council 118 of the American Federation of Government Employees
http://www.judiciary.senate.gov/pdf/2-13-13CraneTestimony.pdf

Janet Murguía
President and CEO, National Council of La Raza
http://www.judiciary.senate.gov/pdf/2-13-13MurguiaTestimony.pdf

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2.
House Committee on the Judiciary
Tuesday, February 5, 2013
http://judiciary.house.gov/hearings/113th/hear_02052013.html

America's Immigration System: Opportunities for Legal Immigration and Enforcement of Laws against Illegal Immigration

Statement by Chairman Bob Goodlatte:
http://judiciary.house.gov/news/2013/02052013.html

Witness Testimony:

Panel I

Vivek Wadhwa
Director of Research, Pratt School of Engineering, Duke University
http://judiciary.house.gov/hearings/113th/02052013/Wadhwa%2002052013.pdf

Michael Teitelbaum
Senior Advisor, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and Wertheim Fellow, Harvard Law School
http://judiciary.house.gov/hearings/113th/02052013/Teitelbaum%2002052013.pdf

Puneet S. Arora
Vice President, Immigration Voice
http://judiciary.house.gov/hearings/113th/02052013/Arora%2002052013.pdf

Julian Castro
Mayor, San Antonio, Texas
http://judiciary.house.gov/hearings/113th/02052013/Castro%2002052013.pdf

Panel II

Julie Myers Wood
President, Guidepost Solutions LLC
http://judiciary.house.gov/hearings/113th/02052013/Woods%2002052013.pdf

Chris Crane
President, National Immigration and Customs Enforcement Council 118, of the American Federation of Government Employees
http://judiciary.house.gov/hearings/113th/02052013/Crane%2002052013.pdf

Jessica Vaughan
Director of Policy Studies, Center for Immigration Studies
http://judiciary.house.gov/hearings/113th/02052013/Vaughan%2002052013.pdf

Muzaffar Chishti
Director of the Migration Policy Institute's office at New York University Law School
http://judiciary.house.gov/hearings/113th/02052013/Chishti%2002052013.pdf

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3.
Relief After Rebuttal: Reaching Humanitarian Asylum Under the Regulations
By Rebekah Bailey and Laura Lunn
Immigration Law Advisor, Vol. 7 No. 1, January 2013
http://www.justice.gov/eoir/vll/ILA-Newsleter/2013/vol7no1.pdf

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4.
Migration and migrant population statistics
Data from December 2012
Eurostat, January 2013
http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/statistics_explained/index.php/Migration_and_migrant_population_statistics

Excerpt: During 2010, about 3.1 million people immigrated into one of the EU Member States (see Table 1), while at least 2.0 million emigrants were reported to have left an EU Member State. The latest figures available reveal a slight increase in immigration in 2010 as compared with 2009. It should be noted that these figures do not represent the migration flows to/from the EU as a whole, since they also include flows between different EU Member States.

The United Kingdom reported the largest number of immigrants (591,000) in 2010, followed by Spain (465,200), Italy (458,900) and Germany (404,100); these four Member States together accounted for 61.9 % of all immigrants into EU Member States.

Spain reported the highest number of emigrants in 2010 (403,000), followed by the United Kingdom with 339,400 and Germany with 252,500. Most EU Member States reported more immigration than emigration in 2010, but in Ireland, Greece, the Czech Republic, Slovenia and the three Baltic Member States emigrants outnumbered immigrants.

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5.
Slowdown population growth in 2012
Statistics Netherlands, February 7, 2013
http://www.cbs.nl/en-GB/menu/themas/bevolking/publicaties/artikelen/archief/2013/2013-007-pb.htm

Excerpt: Nearly 16.8 million people were living in the Netherlands on 1 January 2013, an increase by 48 thousand relative to one year previously. On balance, 13 thousand people from abroad settled in the Netherlands in 2012, i.e. 17 thousand fewer than in 2011. Altogether, 156 thousand immigrants arrived in the Netherlands and 143 thousand emigrants left the country. Last year, immigration was down for the first time since 2006. Emigration rose for the third year in a row. With 35 thousand, natural population growth (births minus deaths) was the lowest since 1871, according to the most recent figures released by Statistics Netherlands.

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6.
New from the Institute for the Study of Labor

1. Return Migration of Foreign Students
By Govert Bijwaard and Qi Wang
Discussion Paper No. 7185, January 2013
http://www.iza.org/en/webcontent/publications/papers/viewAbstract?dp_id=7185

2. The European Crisis and Migration to Germany: Expectations and the Diversion of Migration Flows
By Simone Bertoli, Herbert Brücker, and Jesus Fernández-Huertas Moraga
Discussion Paper No. 7170, January 2013
http://www.iza.org/en/webcontent/publications/papers/viewAbstract?dp_id=7170

3. Quasi-Experimental Impact Estimates of Immigrant Labor Supply Shocks: The Role of Treatment and Comparison Group Matching and Relative Skill Composition
By Abdurrahman Aydemir and Murat G. Kirdar
Discussion Paper No. 7161, January 2013
http://www.iza.org/en/webcontent/publications/papers/viewAbstract?dp_id=7161

4. Wage and Occupational Assimilation by Skill Level: Migration Policy Lessons from Spain
By Nuria Rodríguez-Planas
IZA Policy Paper No. 53, December 2012
http://www.iza.org/en/webcontent/publications/policypapers/viewAbstract?policypaper_id=53

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7.
New from the Migration Policy Institute

Ripe with Change: Evolving Farm Labor Markets in the United States, Mexico, and Central America
By Philip Martin and J. Edward Taylor
February 2013
http://www.migrationpolicy.org/pubs/RMSG-Agriculture.pdf

"Suddenly, Migration Was Everywhere": The Conception and Future Prospects of the Global Migration Group
By Antoine Pecoud
Migration Information Source, February 2013
http://www.migrationinformation.org/Feature/display.cfm?ID=932

Frequently Requested Statistics on Immigrants and Immigration in the United States
By Emma Britz and Jeanne Batalova
Migration Information Source, January 2013
http://www.migrationinformation.org/USfocus/display.cfm?id=931

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8.
New from the Social Science Research Network

1. Designing Temporary Worker Programs
By Hiroshi Motomura, University of California, Los Angeles School of Law
Forthcoming in the University of Chicago Law Review, Vol. 80, 2013
UCLA School of Law Research Paper No. 13-04
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2215054

2. Taking Care of Immigration Law: Presidential Stewardship, Prosecutorial Discretion, and the Separation of Powers
By Peter Margulies, Roger Williams University School of Law
Roger Williams Univ. Legal Studies Paper No. 133
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2215255

3. The Development, Application and Implications of an EU Rule of Law in the Area of Migration Policy
By Diego Acosta Arcarazo, and Andrew Geddes, University of Sheffield
JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies, Vol. 51, Issue 2, pp. 179-193, 2013
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2213753

4. The Transformation of Immigration Federalism
By Jennifer M. Chacón, University of California, Irvine School of Law
William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal, Vol. 21, No. 2, 2012
UC Irvine School of Law Research Paper No. 2013-92
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2211664

5. Return to the Isle of Man: The Implications of Internment for Understanding Immigration Detention in the UK
By Stephanie J. Silverman, University of Oxford
University of Oxford Centre on Migration, Policy and Society Working Paper No. 102, 2012
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2211336

6. Immigration Enforcement by Local Police Under 287(g) and Growth of Unauthorized Immigrant and Other Populations
By Kevin S. O'Neil, University of Cape Town
January 28, 2013
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2210765

7. Overcriminalizing Immigration
By Jennifer M. Chacón, University of California, Irvine School of Law
Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, Vol. 102, No. 3, 2012
UC Irvine School of Law Research Paper No. 2013-91
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2210589

8. Specialty Bars as a Site of Professionalism: The Immigration Bar Example
By Leslie C. Levin, University of Connecticut School of Law
February 1, 2013
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2210525

9. School Attrition Through Enforcement: Title VI Disparate Impact and Verification of Student Immigration Status
By Paul Easton, Boston College Law Review
Boston College Law Review, Vol. 54, No. 313, 2013
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2210551

10. The Political Economy of Trade and Migration: Evidence from the U.S. Congress
By Paola Conconi, Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR); Giovanni Facchini, University of Nottingham; Max Friedrich Steinhardt, Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWI);
and Maurizio Zanardi, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB)
December 2012
CEPR Discussion Paper No. DP9270
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2210240

11. Amnesty in Immigration: Forgetting, Forgiving, Freedom
By Linda S. Bosniak, Rutgers University School of Law
Forthcoming, Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy (CRISPP), Volume 16, No. 3 (2013) (Special Issue: The Margins of Citizenship)
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2209361

12. The Importance of the Political in Immigration Federalism
By Karthick Ramakrishnan, University of California, Riverside and Pratheepan Gulasekaram, Santa Clara University School of Law
Arizona State Law Journal, Vol. 44, No. 1431, 2013
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2209311

13. Legal Services Fraud in Immigrant Communities and the U Visa's Potential to Help Victimized Communities Help Themselves
By Margaret Serrano, Pace University School of Law
Northeastern University Law Journal, Vol. 4, No. 2, October 2012
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2209917

14. New Evidence on the Impact of Legal Status on Immigrant Labor Market Performance: The Spanish Case
By Catalina Amuedo-Dorantes, and Miguel A. Malo, University of Salamanca
LABOUR, Vol. 27, Issue 1, pp. 93-113, 2013
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2209623

15. Economic Benefits Associated with the Visa Waiver Program – A Difference-in-Difference Approach
Xiaochu Hu, George Mason University School of Public Policy
Global Journal of Business Research, v. 7 (1) pp. 81-89, 2013
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2147891

16. Immigrant Entrepreneurs in U.S. Financial History, 1775-1914
By Thomas K. McCraw, Harvard University Entrepreneurial Management Unit
Capitalism and Society, Vol. 5, Issue 1, Article 3, 2010
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2208682

17. Congestion and Optimal Immigration Policy
By Bharat R. Hazari, City University of Hong Kong and Jean-Pierre Laffargue
Review of Development Economics, Vol. 17, Issue 1, 2013
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2206151

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9.
New from Canada’s Joint Centre of Excellence for Research on Immigration and Settlement (CERIS)

The Diverse City: Can you read all about it in ethnic newpapers?
By April Lindgren
CERIS Working Paper Series. No. 95, January 2013
http://www.ceris.metropolis.net/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/CWP_95_-Lindgren.pdf

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10.
New from the Toronto Immigrant Employment Data Initiative

TIEDI Labour Force Update
January 2013
http://www.yorku.ca/tiedi/doc/lfs201301.pdf

Excerpt: In January 2013, the participation rate of Canadian-born aged 25-54 living in the Toronto CMA was 89.8%, compared to 84.3% for all immigrants.

Since 2006, the participation rate among Canadian-born has remained within the range of 88%-92%. This has been consistently higher than the participation rate for immigrants, which has ranged between 80% and 86%.

Profiling Immigrant Poverty in Canada: A 2006 Census Statistical Portrait
By John Shields, Philip Kelly, Stella Park, Nathan Prier, and Tony Fang
Canadian Review of Social Policy, No 65-66 (2011)
http://www.yorku.ca/tiedi/journalarticle.html

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11.
New from the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development

Recruiting Immigrant Workers: Germany 2013
February 2013
http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/social-issues-migration-health/recruiting-immigrant-workers-germany_9789264189034-en

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12.
New from Pew Hispanic Center

The Path Not Taken
Two-thirds of Legal Mexican Immigrants are not U.S. Citizens
By Ana Gonzalez-Barrera, Mark Hugo Lopez, Jeffrey Passel and Paul Taylor
February 4, 2013
http://www.pewhispanic.org/files/2013/02/Naturalizations_Jan_2013_FINAL.pdf

A Nation of Immigrants
A Portrait of the 40 Million, Including 11 Million Unauthorized
January 29, 2013
http://www.pewhispanic.org/files/2013/01/statistical_portrait_final_jan_29.pdf

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13.
Climate Change, Migration and Security
Best-Practice Policy and Operational Options for Mexico
By Elizabeth Deheza and Jorge Mora
Whitehall Report Series, January 2013
http://www.wilsoncenter.org/sites/cis.org/files/RUSI%20Report%20English.pdf

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14.
Turned Away
Summary Returns of Unaccompanied Migrant Children and Adult Asylum Seekers from Italy to Greece
Human Rights Watch, January 22, 2013
http://www.hrw.org/reports/2013/01/22/turned-away

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15.
The Imperative of Place: Homicide and the New Latino Migration
By Edward s. Shihadeh and Raymond E. Barranco
The Sociological Quarterly, Vol. 54, No. 1, January 2013
http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/bsc/tsq/2013/00000054/00000001/art00008

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16.
`No-one ever asked me': the invisible experiences and contribution of Australian emigrant teachers
By Carol Reid and Jock Collins
Race, Ethnicity and Education, Vol. 16, No. 2, March 2013
http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/routledg/cree/2013/00000016/00000002/art00006

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17.
Integration policy in Singapore: a transnational inclusion approach
By Md Mizanur Rahman and Tong Chee Kiong
Asian Ethnicity, Vol. 14, No. 1, January 2013
http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/routledg/caet/2013/00000014/00000001/art00004

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18.
Migration as a Spiritual Pathway: Narratives of Chinese Falungong Practitioners in Singapore
By Chee-Han Lim
The Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology, Vol. 14, No. 1, February 2013
http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/routledg/rtap/2013/00000014/00000001/art00005

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19.
The 287(g) Program:
A Flawed and Obsolete Method of Immigration Enforcement
Immigration Policy Center, November 2012
http://www.immigrationpolicy.org/sites/cis.org/files/docs/287g_fact_sheet_11-2012_0.pdf

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20.
The National Security Implications of Immigration Law
By Arthur Rizer

American Bar Association, 264 pp.

Paperback, ISBN: 1614384231, $109.46
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1614384231/centerforimmigra

Book Description: Immigration law is unique in its national security applications because, while it may be used as a mechanism for keeping the enemy out, it is also the apparatus for entry into the United States. This book examines this topic first by conducting a historical overview of using immigration law for national security purposes, and then exploring the laws and cases themselves.

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21.
Migration, Culture, Conflict, Crime And Terrorism
By Joshua D. Freilich and Rob T. Guerette

Ashgate Pub. Co. 235 pp.

Hardcover, ISBN: 0754626504, $96.54
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0754626504/centerforimmigra

Kindle, 2297 KB, ASIN: B00AW99DIE, $104.00

Book Description: Depending on the context, views on immigration and its consequences can be quite different. While some contend that criminal participation by migrants is the result of environmental factors found in the host country that are beyond the control of migrants, others blame migrants for all that is wrong in their communities. In this book, experts from Europe, the USA, Turkey and Israel examine recent developments in the fields of culture conflict, organized crime, victimization and terrorism, all of which intersect to varying degrees with migration and illegal conduct. While the essays further our understanding of a variety of issues surrounding migration, at the same time they illuminate the complexities of managing the challenges as globalization increases.

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22.
Why Walls Won't Work: Repairing the US-Mexico Divide
By Michael Dear

Oxford University Press, USA, 288 pp.

Hardcover, ISBN: 0199897980, $29.95
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0199897980/centerforimmigra

Kindle, 1681 KB, ASIN: B00B1C2YCS, $9.99

Book Description: Today, when one thinks of the border separating the United States from Mexico, what comes to mind is a war zone--with violent, poverty-ridden towns, cities, and maquiladoras on one side and an increasingly militarized network of barriers and surveillance systems on the other. But as the acclaimed urbanist and geographer Michael Dear reveals in this fascinating book, it was not always this way. In fact, from the end of the Mexican-American War until the late twentieth century, the border was a very porous and loosely regulated region. In this sweeping account of life within the United States-Mexican border zone, Dear traces the border's long history of cultural interaction, beginning with the numerous Mesoamerican tribes of the region. But, as Dear warns in his bracing study, this vibrant zone of cultural and social amalgamation is endangered both by highly restrictive American policies and the violence along Mexico's side of the border. Through a series of evocative portraits of contemporary border communities, he shows that a "third nation," occupied by both Americans and Mexicans, still exists, and the potential for cultivating it remains. Combining a broad historical perspective and a commanding overview of present-day problems, Why Walls Won't Work is a major intellectual intervention into one of the most hotly contested political issues of our time.

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23.
Masculinity, Sexuality and Illegal Migration
By Ali Nobil Ahmad

Ashgate Pub. Co., 228 pp.

Hardcover, ISBN: 1409409759, $99.95
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1409409759/centerforimmigra

Kindle, 3445 KB, ASIN: B00AW99H26, $79.96, 246 pp.

Book Description: "Masculinity, Sexuality and Illegal Migration" makes use of extensive new empirical material to explore the phenomena of migration, human smuggling and illegal work, in order to develop a compelling account of international migration, linking it with irrational, risky economic behaviour and male sexual desire. Interviews conducted with successive waves of Pakistani immigrants in the UK and Italy, together with ethnographic fieldwork amongst local journalists, immigration officials and smugglers in Pakistan serve as the basis for an interdisciplinary comparative analysis of illegal migration across time and space. Challenging the received idea that labour migration is driven by purely and primarily by rational economic forces, "Masculinity, Sexuality and Illegal Migration" draws upon psychoanalytic social theory to examine the roles of masculinity and irrationality in the decision to migrate, thus stimulating a more complex debate about migration's causes and consequences. The arguments it makes raise wider questions about the folly of thinking about economic concerns in isolation from other aspects of human experience. As such, this book will appeal to those with research interests in economics, social theory, migration, gender and sexuality, and race and ethnicity.

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24.
Minority Internal Migration in Europe
By Nissa Finney and Gemma Catney

Ashgate Pub. Co., 369 pp.

Hardcover, ISBN: 1409431886, $154.95
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1409431886/centerforimmigra

Kindle, 21513 KB, ASIN: B00AQJ4DDU, $123.96, 394 pp.

Book Description: This book brings together experts in the fields of migration, ethnicity and diversity from across Europe to examine patterns of residential mobility of minorities, and to synthesise key themes, theories and methods. The analyses presented make important contributions to theories of migration and minority integration and may inform policies that aim to respond to local population change and increasing diversity. The conclusions of the book form an agenda for future research on minority and immigrant internal migration in developed societies.

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25.
Desi Dreams: Indian Immigrant Women Build Lives Across Two Worlds
By Ashidhara Das

Primus Books, 180 pp.

Hardcover, ISBN: 9380607474, $43.76
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/9380607474/centerforimmigra

Book Description: Desi Dreams focuses on the construction of self and identity by Indian immigrant professional and semi-professional women who live and work in the US. The focus in this anthropological fieldwork is on Indian immigrants in the San Francisco Bay Area. They have often been defined as a model minority. Indian immigrant women who have achieved entry into the current technology based economy in the Silicon Valley value the capital-accumulation, status-transformation, socio-economic autonomy, and renegotiation of familial gender relations that are made possible by their employment. However, this quintessential American success story conceals the psychic costs of uneasy Americanization, long drawn out gender battles, and incessant cross-cultural journeys of selves and identities. The outcome is a diasporic identity through the recomposition of Indian culture in the diaspora and strengthening of transnational ties to India.

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26.
European Journal of Migration and Law
Vol. 14, No. 4, 2012
http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/mnp/emil/2012/00000014/00000004

Selected articles:

Local Border Traffic - European Union and Member States' Perspective (based on Polish Experience)
By Tomasz Dubowski
http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/mnp/emil/2012/00000014/00000004/art00002

The Role of Third Countries in EU Migration Policy: The Mobility Partnerships
By Natasja Reslow
http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/mnp/emil/2012/00000014/00000004/art00003

Export of Study Grants and the Lawfulness of Durational Residency Requirements: Comments on Case C-542/09, Commission v the Netherlands
By Alexander Hoogenboom
http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/mnp/emil/2012/00000014/00000004/art00004

The Objective of Directive 2003/86 Is to Promote the Family Reunification of Third Country Nationals
By Julien Hardy
http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/mnp/emil/2012/00000014/00000004/art00005

Alison Kesby, The Right to Have Rights. Citizenship, Humanity, and International Law
By Nanda Oudejans
http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/mnp/emil/2012/00000014/00000004/art00006

Bas Schotel, On the Right of Exclusion: Law, Ethics and Immigration Policy
By Andrew Crosby
http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/mnp/emil/2012/00000014/00000004/art00007

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27.
Global Networks
Vol. 13, Issue 1, January 2013
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/glob.2013.13.issue-1/issuetoc

Selected articles:

Transforming polygamy: migration, transnationalism and multiple marriages among Muslim minorities
By Katharine Charsley and Anika Liversage
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1471-0374.2012.00369.x/pdf

Migrant transnationalism and the choice of transfer channels for remittances: the case of Moldova
By Melissa Siegel and Matthias Lucke
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/glob.12002/pdf

+++

Vol. 12 Issue 4, October 2012

Migrants as strategic actors in the European Union's Global Approach to Migration and Mobility
By Michael Collyer
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1471-0374.2012.00370.x/abstract

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28.
Human Mobility
Boletim 93, Ano X, February 2013
http://csem.org.br/images/downloads/boletins/Boletim_Mobilidade_Humana_-_ano_X_n._93.pdf

English language content:

SYRIAN REFUGEE WOMEN EXPLOITED IN EGYPT
Lina Al Tiby, a Syrian activist living in Cairo, runs a support network for Syrian women refugees; helps them adapt to life in Egypt; and tries to persuade them not to allow poverty to push them into sex work or unwanted marriage.

Arriving in Egypt with little more than the clothes they are wearing, some Syrian women see marriage as the only means of survival.

"Egyptian men tell Syrian women they will marry them to help them and their families, but… can’t these men help Syrian women without marrying them?" said Al Tiby.
. . .
http://www.irinnews.org/Report/97387/Syrian-refugee-women-exploited-in-Egypt

OECD REPORT ON LABOUR MIGRATION: GERMANY IS OPEN TO GRADUATES BUT IMMIGRATION IS DIFFICULT FOR MEDIUM-SKILLED WORKERS
Germany is one of the OECD countries with the lowest barriers to immigration for high-skilled workers. However, long-term labour migration is low in comparison with other countries. As the OECD report Recruiting immigrant workers: Germany points out, the number of immigrant workers from outside the EU and the European Free Trade Area (EFTA) is 25,000 a year, or around 0.02 percent of the population. The number of immigrant workers in Australia, Denmark, Canada and the United Kingdom is five to ten times higher.
. . .
http://www.oecd.org/newsroom/oecdreportonlabourmigrationgermanyisopentograduatesbutimmigrationisdifficultformedium-skilledworkers.htm

SWITZERLAND REJECTS 2,700 NIGERIAN ASYLUM SEEKERS
The Swiss Government has said that of the 2,700 Nigerians who sought asylum in 2012, none was granted refugee status because of lack of convincing reasons.

The Swiss Justice and Police Minister, Simonetta Sommaruga, who disclosed this at the weekend in Abuja, revealed that as part of incentives by her country to encourage illegal Nigerian migrants to return home, $1,500 was offered to migrants who volunteered to return home."
. . .
http://nationalmirroronline.net/new/switzerland-rejects-2700-nigerian-asylum-seekers/

EVEN WITH LEGALIZATION, UNDOCUMENTED IMMIGRANTS TURN DOWN CITIZENSHIP
There are approximately 11 million undocumented immigrants in the United States. If enacted, a massive legalization program would mean that those 11 million people would eventually become U.S. citizens, right?

Not necessarily.

A new report by the Pew Hispanic Center, a nonprofit research think tank in Washington, D.C., concluded that, taking history into account, even under a new amnesty program, millions of immigrants would likely come out of the shadows and take the chance to get a "green card," or legal permanent residency.
. . .
http://latino.foxnews.com/latino/news/2013/02/04/even-with-legalization-undocumented-immigrants-turn-down-citizenship/

'IMMIGRANT AREAS HAVE FEWER SOCIAL PROBLEMS'
Some areas of Sweden with low levels of immigration have more pronounced social problems than towns with higher numbers of immigrants, according to the conclusions of a new report based on the UN Human Development Index.
Peter Vinthagen Simpson

"The 20 best towns have more immigrants than average, that is to say 14.4 percent. There is no tendency whatsoever for towns with high numbers of immigrants to have worse results than others," said Stefan Fölster, head of the Reform Institute which published the new report.
. . .
http://www.thelocal.se/45970/20130203/

RUSSIA: MIGRANT OLYMPIC WORKERS CHEATED, EXPLOITED
Migrant workers building sites and infrastructure for the 2014 Winter Olympic Games in Sochi, Russia, have been cheated and exploited. With exactly one year to go before the Winter Olympics, Russia and the International Olympic Committee (IOC) should make rigorous monitoring of workers’ rights on Olympic construction sites a top priority to prevent further abuses.

The 67-page report, "Race to the Bottom: Exploitation of Migrant Workers Ahead of Russia’s 2014 Winter Olympic Games in Sochi," documents exploitation of migrant workers on key Olympic sites, including the Central Olympic Stadium, the Main Olympic Village, and the Main Media Center.
. . .
http://www.hrw.org/node/113466

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Boletim 92, Ano X, January 2013
http://www.csem.org.br/images/downloads/boletins/Boletim_Mobilidade_Humana_-_ano_X_n._92.pdf

English language content:

Immigrant women’s advocates condemn new attack on birthright citizenship
Legislation introduced by Rep. Steve King (R-Iowa) would target immigrant families The National Coalition for Immigrant Women’s Rights (NCIWR) condemns new federal legislation introduced by Rep. Steve King (R-IA) that seeks to deny 14th amendment rights to citizenship and targets immigrant families. The bill (HR-140) would deny birthright citizenship to children of some immigrant parents.
http://csem.org.br/csem/noticias/677-immigrant-women-s-advocates-condemn-new-attack-on-birthright-citizenship

Immigrant Women Bake Up Hopeful Future
As the oven doors open and close at the Hot Bread Kitchen bakery in East Harlem, the aroma of fresh breads fill the air: walnut raisin, grindstone rye, and sourdough.
http://csem.org.br/csem/noticias/725-immigrant-women-bake-up-hopeful-future

Latina immigrants: the new ambassadors of Islam
Tucked away in a quiet rural neighborhood in Somerset, New Jersey is an old brownstone that houses the New Jersey Chapter of the Islamic Center of North America’s (ICNA) WhyIslam Project. Within its confines, in a second floor office decorated with rose-colored walls, sits the administrative assistant and only female employee of the department, Nahela Morales.
http://www.csem.org.br/csem/noticias/713-latina-immigrants-the-new-ambassadors-of-islam

Evangelical Christians prepare for ‘largest ever grassroots push on immigration’
When the Rev. Samuel Rodriguez talks about immigration, it is as someone who has witnessed the way a religious community is affected when a family is torn apart by deportation. "It is personal for me," Rodriguez said, describing deported friends and congregants as "lovely people. These are wonderful, God-fearing, family-loving people."
http://csem.org.br/csem/noticias/683-evangelical-christians-prepare-for-largest-ever-grassroots-push-on-immigration

Most new Irish citizens do not feel more integrated
By Judith Crosbie
Most immigrants who become Irish citizens say their new status does not lead to greater integration, according to a survey to be published today. The vast majority of new citizens are highly educated and work, the survey by the Immigrant Council of Ireland and UCD academics shows.
http://csem.org.br/csem/noticias/685-most-new-irish-citizens-do-not-feel-more-integrated

Germany from xenophobia to islamophobia
Giving a freaking image of anti-Islam sentiments in Germany, a new study has revealed that Islamophobia has become culturally acceptable in the country and that the society is shifting its attention from xenophobia to religious bias against Muslims, The Local newspaper reported.
http://csem.org.br/csem/noticias/667-germany-from-xenophobia-to-islamophobia

Human Trafficking: Taken Into China
By Phillip Martin
Vietnam is losing its children. For years, girls and young women have been taken — kidnapped and trafficked across the border into Cambodia and southern China. Many disappear into big cities.
http://csem.org.br/csem/noticias/734-human-trafficking-taken-into-china

Trafficked Women In UK Prisons Have No Support Or Protection, University Of Cambridge Report Finds
Women who have been trafficked into the country to work as prostitutes, drug mules or domestic servants can end up in UK prisons without any protection or support, while traffickers walk free, new research has found.
http://csem.org.br/csem/noticias/740-trafficked-women-in-uk-prisons-have-no-support-or-protection-university-of-cambridge-report-finds

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29.
Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Vol. 39, No. 3, March 2013
http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/cjms20/current

Selected articles:

Marriage, Migration, Multiculturalism: Gendering ‘The Bengal Diaspora’
By Claire Alexander
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/1369183X.2013.733857

Between Fragmented Ties and ‘Soul Friendships’: The Cross-Border Social Connections of Young Romanians in London
By Laura Morosanu
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/1369183X.2013.733858

Everyday Geopolitics, the Valuation of Labour and the Socio-Political Hierarchies of Skill: Polish Nurses in Norway
By Micheline van Riemsdijk
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/1369183X.2013.733859

The International Family Migration of Swedish-Speaking Finns: The Role of Spousal Education
By Jan Saarela and Fjalar Finnäs
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/1369183X.2013.733860

Negotiating the Social Citizenship Rights of Migrant Domestic Workers: The Right to Family Reunification and a Family Life in Policies and Debates
By Maria Kontos
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/1369183X.2013.733861

Parental Religious Transmission after Migration: The Case of Dutch Muslims
By Mieke Maliepaard and Marcel Lubbers
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/1369183X.2013.733862

The Policies and Politics of Managed Migration: Exploring Mature Labour Migration from Central and Eastern Europe into the UK
By Simon Pemberton and Lisa Scullion
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/1369183X.2013.733863

Transnational Activism in Ethnic Diasporas: Insights from Cuban Exiles, American Jews and Irish Americans
By Brett S. Heindl
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/1369183X.2013.733864

Living Between Multiple Sites: Transnational Family Relations from the Perspective of Elderly Non-Migrants in Junín, Peru
By Eva de Bruine, Michaela Hordijk, Carla Tamagno, and Yanina Sánchez Arimborgo
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/1369183X.2013.733865

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30.
Migration News
Vol. 20 No. 1, January 2013
http://migration.ucdavis.edu/mn/more_entireissue.php?idate=2013_01&number=1

THE AMERICAS

Immigration Reform, DACA
President Obama was re-elected in November 2012, winning 332 electoral votes and 51 percent of the 124 million votes cast. The number of votes dropped from 132 million in 2008, as only 51 percent of voting-age residents cast ballots. Minority voters cast 28 percent of the ballots in 2012, up from 26 percent in 2008.

DHS: Border, Interior, USCIS
The Pew Hispanic Center estimated 11.1 million unauthorized foreigners in 2011, continuing the downward trend from 12 million in 2007. Of the 40 million foreign-born US residents, Pew estimated that 15.1 million are naturalized US citizens and 12.2 million are legal immigrants.

Unemployment, Shortages, H-1B
The US unemployment rate was 7.8 percent in December 2012, but private sector employers continued to add jobs. The US added 1.8 million jobs in 2012, an average 150,000 a month. Between December 2008 and December 2012, the private sector added a net 725,000 jobs while government employment fell by 697,000, that is, there was a slight increase in private sector jobs over four years and a decline of over three percent in government jobs.

Foreign-Born, Education, Health
The US, which had 314 million residents at the end of 2012, is projected to become a nation of 420 million without a single racial or ethnic group being a majority of residents by 2043. Changing demographics show up first among the young. Before 2020, half of US children will be members of a minority.

Census projections released in December 2012 expect rising net international migration, from about 800,000 a year in 2015 to 1.1 million a year in the 2030s and 1.2 million a year in the 2040s. (www.census.gov/population/projections/data/national/2012.html) After 2030, rising net international migration and declining natural increase mean that immigration will directly contribute more than half to US population growth, which will slow to about two million a year.

Canada, Mexico
Canada. The government announced plans to admit 240,000 to 265,000 new permanent residents in 2013, including 10,000 via the Canadian Experience Class for skilled temporary foreign workers who want to settle in Canada. As in Australia and New Zealand, foreigners can register, have their skills certified, and be listed in an internet database available to Canadian employers. If a foreigner is selected by a Canadian employer, he/she can receive an immigrant visa under a fast-track system.

The number of temporary foreign workers in Canada has been increasing as the government makes it easier for employers to hire them. The federal government, which in 2012 promised to respond to employers seeking highly skilled foreigners within 10 days, waived the requirement to try to recruit Canadians if the employer was offering jobs to US workers in seven construction occupations. The government also allowed employers to pay high-skilled temporary foreign workers up to 15 percent less than the regional median wage, and low-skilled temporary foreign workers five percent less, if the employer paid the same lower-than-median wages to its Canadian workers.

Caribbean: Migrants
The Caribbean Community (www.caricom.org) is an organization of 15 mostly English-speaking nations and dependencies created by the 1973 Treaty of Chaguaramas that aims to promote economic integration, including freedom of movement, between member states. The population of CARICOM was about 16 million in 2012, including nine million in Haiti, 2.8 million in Jamaica, and 1.3 million in Trinidad & Tobago.

EUROPE

EU: Migration, Jobs, Budget
Migration. The EU 27 member nations had 50 million foreign-born residents at the end of 2011; there were also 33 million citizens of non-EU 27 countries, including many who were foreign-born but some who were born to foreigners in the EU-27 country in which they are now living. Two-thirds of the foreign-born residents were born outside the EU, and 60 percent of the foreign citizens in EU-27 countries were born outside the EU.

UK: Migrants
The Conservative-Liberal coalition government in 2010 promised to reduce net migration from the hundreds of thousands to less than 100,000 by 2015. In September 2012, the Parliament approved a motion to take "all necessary steps" to keep the country's population below 70 million. Opinion polls suggest that most British want fewer immigrants: 75 percent say that immigrants make it harder to access public services, and two-thirds believe that the presence of immigrants makes it harder for Britons to get jobs.

France, Germany, Benelux
France. There were five million migrants in France at the end of 2010. The leading countries of origin were Algeria, Morocco and Portugal. Some 66,000 foreigners became French citizens in 2011.

Southern Europe
Greece. The Greek government announced at the end of 2012 that it had "stopped" unauthorized migration over its land border with Turkey. Some 55,000 foreigners were detected crossing the Evros River in 2011, but none in December 2012. Some say that smugglers have shifted to sea routes, moving migrants to Lesvos, Sumos, Symi and the Farmkonis.

Russia: Migrants
Since 2005, Russian nationalists have used the November 4th holiday to protest the presence of foreigners in Russia and to call for an end to immigration from Central Asian nations such as Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. Several thousand demonstrators marched near the Kremlin on November 4, 2012, the first time that they were allowed to march in the inner city, chanting "Russia for Russians!"

ASIA

China: Migrants, Taiwan
China's 2010 census enumerated 1.3 billion people, including 940 million between the ages of 15 and 59. There were 253 million rural-urban migrants in 2012, and these internal migrants were a third of the urban labor force. Over 100 million workers living on farms have nonfarm jobs, suggesting that China is nearing the end of its rural labor surplus and explaining why the wages of migrants in urban areas have been rising sharply.

Japan, Korea
Korea. There were 1.4 million foreigners in Korea at the end of 2011, including 727,000 migrant workers. The 500,000 non-professional migrant workers included 300,000 ethnic Korean Chinese and another 200,000 foreign workers admitted under the Employment Permit System. The quota of newly admitted migrant workers was 57,000 for 2012, up from 48,000 in 2011. Some 67,000 EPS migrants are expected to leave Korea in 2012 as their period of employment expires.

Many Korean employers use corporal punishment on employees who make mistakes. A survey of 450 migrant workers in South Gyeongsang province found that almost 14 percent suffered physical abuse in the workplace, often at the hands of their Korean co-workers when they said they misunderstood instructions given in Korean. Average monthly salaries were 1.6 million won ($1,500), or about $300 a month less than Korean co-workers. Migrants remitted an average one million won a month. Most workers were employed six days a week, 11 hours a day.

Southeast Asia
President Obama participated in the ASEAN summit in Cambodia in November 2012, and also visited Thailand and Myanmar. ASEAN, which plans a free-trade agreement by 2015, announced plans to free up trade with six countries that already have FTAs with ASEAN: Australia, China, India, Japan, New Zealand and South Korea.

ASEAN aims to begin freedom of movement for eight occupations in 2015, including engineers, nurses, architects, surveyors, accountants, dentists and doctors. For each occupation, migrants would have to pass tests and receive certificates in the country in which they want to work.

Burma/Myanmar. Burma, a country of 55 million, has some three million citizens abroad, according to the Ministry of Labor, Employment and Social Security. The MLESS said that almost all Burmese abroad were in neighboring Thailand, and that 1.2 million Burmese in Thailand had received temporary passports after having their Burmese nationality verified. Another one million Burmese are in Thailand without Burmese passports.

South Asia, Middle East
Bangladesh. Recruiters typically charge Bangladeshis going abroad to work far more than the maximum fee set by the government, which is usually 84,000 taka ($1,025). Many of the Bangladeshis interviewed in Malaysia reported paying M$13,000 ($4,250) in recruitment fees.

The Bangladeshi and Malaysian governments in Fall 2012 signed a government-to-government agreement that limits recruitment costs to 40,000 taka ($490). The plan drew sharp criticism from the 1,200-member Bangladesh Association of International Recruiting Agencies (BAIRA), which says that BAIRA "developed" the Malaysian market for Bangladeshi workers. The Malaysian government stopped the recruitment of Malaysian workers in 2009 due to "irregularities" that resulted in Bangladeshis not being met at the airport by their prospective Malaysian employers.

OTHER

Australia, New Zealand
Australia admitted 185,000 immigrants in 2011-12, plus an additional 254,000 foreign students, 223,000 working holiday makers, and 125,000 temporary foreign workers(457). About 126,000 of the immigrants were selected via the point system. For 2012-13, Australia anticipates 190,000 immigrants, including 130,000 selected via the point system.

In 2010-11, China (29,500) overtook Britain as the major source of immigrants to Australia.

Monash University demographer Bob Birrell estimated there were almost a million temporary migrants in Australia in July 2012, including 254,000 foreign students, 223,000 working holiday makers, and 125,000 long-stay guest workers with 457 skilled-worker visas. Birrell believes that many of the temporary foreign visitors hope to receive immigrant visas, explaining why many receive multiple temporary visas. Birrell reported that almost 26,000 foreign students received tourist visas in 2011-12, and attributes the near doubling of the unemployment rate among Australian youth aged 20 to 24 to over eight percent in summer 2012 to competition from foreigners.

GFMD, WB: Remittances Top $400 Billion
The UN estimated that there were 214 million international migrants in 2010, defined as persons outside their country of birth for a year or more, double the number of 1985. If current trends continue, there could be over 400 million migrants by 2050.

The Global Forum on Migration and Development (GFMD) held its sixth annual meeting in Mauritius in November 2012, attracting over 160 governments. Many government representatives noted that the GFMD aims to develop "practical policies" to ensure that migration speeds development in migrant countries of origin. The goal is to share successful migration and development policies during the UN's second High-Level Dialogue on International Migration and Development in September 2013.

OECD: Growth, Migrants
Migrants. The OECD reported that 4.2 million permanent-type migrants moved into 23 member states in 2008, down from 4.5 million in 2007. The OECD includes temporary visitors with renewable work and resident permits in its count of permanent-type migrants, including some types of guest workers and intra-company transfers, but not international students, even if they stay in the host country several years.

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31.
Refugee Survey Quarterly
Volume 32 Issue 1, March 2013
http://rsq.oxfordjournals.org/content/current

Articles:

Borders in Motion: Concept and Policy Nexus
By Ricard Zapata-Barrero
http://rsq.oxfordjournals.org/content/32/1/1.abstract

Poverty and Livelihoods Among Unhcr Registered Refugees in Lebanon
By Jad M. Chaaban, Karin Seyfert, Nisreen I. Salti, and Gheed S. El Makkaoui
http://rsq.oxfordjournals.org/content/32/1/24.abstract

Should I Stay or Should I go? National Identity and Attitudes Towards Local Integration Among Liberian Refugees in Ghana
By Jennifer Byrne
http://rsq.oxfordjournals.org/content/32/1/50.abstract

Durable Solutions for Internally Displaced Persons in Burundi Within Reach
By Greta Zeender and Barbara McCallin
http://rsq.oxfordjournals.org/content/32/1/74.abstract

The Reinvention of Tradition: New Configurations of Gender Identity and Economic Strategies Within Roma Communities in Italy
By Angelica Pesarini
http://rsq.oxfordjournals.org/content/32/1/101.abstract

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32.
REMHU
Revista Interdisciplinar da Mobilidade Humana
Ano XX – No. 39, July-December, 2012
http://www.csem.org.br/remhu/index.php/remhu/index

Selected English-language articles:
(Scroll to bottom)

The cry of migration and the teaching of the Church
http://www.csem.org.br/remhu/index.php/remhu/article/viewFile/338/305

This is a work for immigrants! Contributions on migration, gender, and work in the First Testament
http://www.csem.org.br/remhu/index.php/remhu/article/viewFile/339/306

Intercultural Pastoral Care in the context of migration in the local church
http://www.csem.org.br/remhu/index.php/remhu/article/viewFile/340/307

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33.
Rural Migration News
Vol. 19, No. 1, January 2013
http://migration.ucdavis.edu/rmn/

IMMIGRATION

Immigration Reform: AFBF, CFBF
Immigration reform is expected be a top domestic priority after issues surrounding the debt ceiling and spending cuts are resolved. President Obama in October 2012 called immigration reform his major "long-term" priority for a second term, and House Speaker John Boehner said that a "comprehensive approach [to immigration] is long overdue." One summary of the politics of immigration reform concluded that the Democrats want immigration reform that includes legalization to reward Hispanic voters while the Republicans need immigration reform to increase their appeal to Hispanic voters.

H-2A; H-2B
DOL published 2013 Adverse Effect Wage Rates on January 8, 2013. AEWRs range from a low of $9.50 an hour in states such as Louisiana and Mississippi to $12.72 in Hawaii. The AEWR is $10.74 in California, and $9.68 in North Carolina, the state with the most H-2A workers.

The AEWR is a monthly rate for sheepherders in western states, $750 a month plus room and board in the mountain states such as Colorado and Idaho, and $1,422.52 a month in California, Oregon and Washington.

The outgoing Bush administration in January 2009 changed H-2A regulations to allow farm employers to attest to their need for labor and changed the basis of the special minimum wage that farmers must offer and pay, the Adverse Effect Wage Rate, in ways that lowered the AEWR by an average $1.44 an hour. The Obama administration returned the H-2A program to a certification base, returned the AEWR to its original basis in March 2010, and introduced an online registry of H-2A jobs.

DHS: Border, Interior, USCIS
The Pew Hispanic Center estimated 11.1 million unauthorized foreigners in 2011, continuing the downward trend from 12 million in 2007. Of the 40 million foreign-born US residents, Pew estimated that 15.1 million are naturalized US citizens and 12.2 million are legal immigrants.

The US population of 315 million at the end of 2012 was 66 percent non-Hispanic white; 17 percent Hispanic; 12 percent Black; and five percent Asian.

Border. According to the Transactional Records Access Clearinghouse, there were 417 million inspections of persons arriving in the US in FY05 at 317 ports of entry, over 1.1 million a day; some 384,000 persons were refused entry, or one tenth of one percent. About 40 percent of arrivals were US citizens, 16 percent immigrants admitted to the US as permanent residents, and 44 percent temporary visitors. http://trac.syr.edu/immigration/reports/142/include/rep142plot2.html)

Canada, SA, UK
Canada. A mining company's plans to hire only Chinese migrant workers at a coal mine launched a discussion of temporary foreign workers in Fall 2012. There were 300,000 temporary foreign workers in Canada in 2011, including 100,000 in low-skilled jobs.

HD Mining in April 2012 received a labor market opinion granting it permission to hire 201 Chinese coal miners for a project near Tumbler Ridge, British Columbia. HD's recruitment ads said knowledge of Mandarin would be an advantage, which brought complaints from unions. Economists Herb Grubel and Arthur Sweetman argue that temporary foreign workers are subsidies to the industries that hire them, and their presence can make it difficult for immigrants to integrate into the Canadian labor market.

The Seasonal Agricultural Worker Program admitted 16,000 Mexican and 8,000 Caribbean farm workers in 2012, including 3,600 Mexicans who went to British Columbia; 95 percent were married men. Migrant advocates say that, if SAWP workers complain about their employers, they are blacklisted and cannot return, so few complain.

RURAL AMERICA

California: Jobs, Immigration
Immigration. About 27 percent of California's 38 million residents in 2010 were immigrants, according to American Community Survey (ACS) data for 2007-11. Across the US, the ACS reported that 13 percent of residents were immigrants.

California's population reached 37.8 million in July 2012, up 256,000 or less than one percent from the previous year. The ACS reported that 100,000 more Americans left California than moved to the state, and that the most common destinations for out-migrants were Texas, Arizona, and Nevada. There were 503,000 births in California in the year to July 2012 and 234,000 deaths.

An average 76 percent of California teens graduate from high school. Immigrants and children of immigrants are at the extremes of the education ladder. Almost 90 percent of Asians graduate from high school, followed by 85 percent of non-Hispanic whites, 70 percent of Hispanics, and 63 percent of Blacks. Only half of those labeled limited English proficient graduate from high school in California.

Midwest: Hispanic Migrants
The US population of 308 million in 2010 included 258 million residents of metro areas and 50 million residents of non-metro areas. About 80 percent of the non-metro residents were non-Hispanic white, compared to 61 percent of the metro residents.

Many non-metro areas have been losing native youth for decades, as young people who go away to college do not return. Some have begun to attract Hispanic immigrants, especially if a high-turnover plant such as a meat processing facility recruits additional workers, some of whom settle in the community. The children of settled meatpacking workers soon affect local schools and health-care facilities. There can be significant segregation even in small meatpacking towns, with Hispanic newcomers living in sections with low-cost housing.

Integrating immigrants in non-metro areas offers challenges and opportunities. The challenges include the fact that many are employed in relatively low-wage jobs, limiting their upward mobility. Their children may not receive the education they need to get better US jobs than their parents, especially if they live with other recent immigrants. On the other hand, immigrants in non-metro areas can often afford to buy homes, and Hispanic population growth in areas with declining populations allows some to take over or open businesses.

Poverty, Health Insurance
California had the highest poverty rate of all states, almost 24 percent in 2011, under the Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM) developed by the Census Bureau, followed by Florida at 20 percent. (www.census.gov/hhes/povmeas/methodology/supplemental/overview.html) California's poverty rate was 16 percent under the regular poverty line and Florida's 15 percent.

The SPM, which includes broader measures of income and expenditure than the regular poverty rate, such as payroll taxes that reduce take-home pay and the value of government benefits, gives California, Florida and 12 other states a higher poverty rate because of the high cost of living. There were 26 states in which the SPM was lower than the official poverty rate, including Texas and most Midwestern states where housing costs were lower. There was no difference between the regular poverty line and the SPM for 10 states.

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34.
West European Politics
Volume 36, Number 1, January 2013
http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/routledg/wep/2013/00000036/00000001

Selected articles:

How EU Capacity Bargains Strengthen States: Migration and Border Security in South-East Europe
By Andrew Geddes and Andrew Taylor
http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/routledg/wep/2013/00000036/00000001/art00005

Citizenship, Multiculturalism and Cross-National Muslim Minority Public Opinion
By David T. Buckley
http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/routledg/wep/2013/00000036/00000001/art00009

Welfare Dualism in Two Scandinavian Welfare States: Public Opinion and Party Politics
By Ann-Helen Bay, Henning Finseraas, and Axel West Pedersen
http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/routledg/wep/2013/00000036/00000001/art00011

Migration Policymaking in Europe: The Dynamics of Actors and Contexts in Past and Present
By Dietrich Thranhardt
http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/routledg/wep/2013/00000036/00000001/art00018

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