Immigration Reading List

Last Updated: 4/11/2014

View the Immigration Reading List Archive.

The Center's work is located on the Publication page.

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1. House testimony on authorizing Customs and Border Protection and Immigration and Customs Enforcement
2. House testimony on combating human trafficking in major cities
3. DHS report on the resident nonimmigrant population
4. Latest issue of DOJ EOIR Immigration Law Advisor
5. Court of Appeals decision: Galarza v. Szalczyk, et al.
6. U.K.: Statistics on asylum applications and children in detention
7. E.U.: Frontex manual on fundamental rights training for border guards
8. Norway: Statistics on population


9. Two new reports from TRAC
10. New report from FAIR: "The Fiscal Burden of Illegal Aliens on North Carolinians
11. Rasmussen Report: "78 Percent Favor Proof of Citizenship Before Being Allowed to Vote"
12. Seven new working papers from the Institute for the Study of Labor
13. Six new reports and features from the Migration Policy Institute
14. Twelve new papers from the Social Science Research Network
15. Two new reports from the International Organization for Migration
16. "The Rise of Federal Immigration Crimes"
17. "The Economic Gains from Eliminating U.S. Travel Visas"
18. "The Political Externalities of Immigration: Evidence from the United States"
19. U.K.: "Hidden Away: Abuses against Migrant Domestic Workers in the UK"
20. "French connections: the networking strategies of French highly skilled migrants in London"


21. Immigration Regulation in Federal States: Challenges and Responses in Comparative Perspective
22. Culling the Masses: The Democratic Origins of Racist Immigration Policy in the Americas
23. Encountering Ellis Island: How European Immigrants Entered America
24. After They Closed the Gates: Jewish Illegal Immigration to the United States, 1921-1965
25. Border Patrol Nation: Dispatches from the Front Lines of Homeland Security
26. Global Migration: The Basics


27. Comparative Migration Studies
28. CSEM Newsletter
29. Ethnic and Racial Studies
30. International Migration
31. International Migration Review
32. Journal on Migration and Human Security
33. Migration Policy Practice
34. Migration Studies
35. Mobilities
36. Resenha
37. The Social Contract

House Committee on Homeland Security
Tuesday, April 8, 2014
Subcommittee on Border and Maritime Security

Authorizing Customs and Border Protection and Immigration and Customs Enforcement

Opening Statement:
Rep. Candice Miller, Chairman
[Video at link]

Witness testimony:

Kevin K. McAleenan, Acting Deputy Commissioner
U.S. Customs and Border Protection
U.S. Department of Homeland Security

Daniel D. Ragsdale, Acting Director
Immigrations and Customs Enforcement
U.S. Department of Homeland Security

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House Committee on Homeland Security
Thursday, March 20, 2014
Field Hearing - Roderick R. Paige Education Bldg, College of Education, Texas Southern Univ Houston, TX

Combating Human Trafficking in Our Major Cities

Opening Statement:
Rep. Michael McCaul, Chairman

Witness testimony:

Brian M. Moskowitz, Houston Special Agent in Charge
Immigration and Customs Enforcement
U.S. Department of Homeland Security

Steve McCraw, Director
Texas Department of Public Safety

Sheriff Adrian Garcia
Sheriff’s Office
Harris County, Texas

Ann Johnson, Attorney
Office of the District Attorney
Harris County, Texas

Charles A. McClelland, Jr., Chief
Houston Police Department
Houston, Texas

Robert “Bob” Sanborn, President
Children At Risk

Reena Isaac, M.D., Assistant Professor, Pediatrics
Baylor College of Medicine
Texas Children’s Hospital

Cheryl Briggs, Founder and Chief Executive Officer
Mission at Serenity Ranch

Kathryn Griffin-Townsend, Founder
We’ve Been There Done That

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Estimates of the Size and Characteristics of the Resident Nonimmigrant Population in the United States: January 2012
By Bryan Baker
U.S. Dept. of Homeland Security Population Estimates, February 2014


There were, on average, 1.9 million nonimmigrants residing in the United States during the 12-month period centered on January 1, 2012 (see Table 1). The largest categories were temporary workers (45 percent, or 840,000) and students (38 percent, or 720,000). Among temporary workers, 38 percent were citizens of India and 45 percent were ages 25–34. Nearly 50 percent of the students were citizens of China (22 percent), India (14 percent), or South Korea (13 percent), and slightly more than 50 percent of the students were ages 18–24. Exchange visitors made up another 12 percent of the total resident nonimmigrant population, and the remaining 4 percent were diplomats and other representatives. Estimates for students and exchange visitor principals are consisent 6 with counts of “active” students from the DHS Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS) (see Appendix II).

Region and country of citizenship
About half of the resident nonimmigrants (980,000) were citizens of Asian countries, including India (23 percent), China (11 percent), South Korea (8 percent), and Japan (5 percent). Europe and North America comprised another 26 percent, led by Canada (6 percent) and Mexico (5 percent). The five leading countries accounted for over 50 percent of the total.

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Removable Officers and the Doctrine of Command Responsibility
By Maureen Contreni
Immigration Law Advisor, Vol. 8 No. 3, March 2014

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Galarza v. Szalczyk, et al.
United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit, No. 12-3991
Decided, March 4, 2014

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Monthly asylum application tables
January 2014
U.K. Home Office, March 27, 2014

Children entering detention under Immigration Act powers
For February 2014
U.K. Home Office, March 27, 2014

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Fundamental Rights Training for Border Guards
Frontex, March 17, 2014

FRAN Quarterly, July-September 2013
Frontex, January 31, 2014

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Key figures for the population
Statistics Norway, April 8, 2014

Table excerpt:

Population, 4th Quarter 2013
5,109,056 (4,799,252 in 2008)

710,465 (459,614 in 2008)

Norwegian-born to immigrant parents
593,321 (380,644 in 2008)

Population changes - 4th Quarter 2013

13,425 (-2.2 from previous year)

10,462 (-2.3)

17,956 (-3.5)

8,334 (0.1)

Norwegian naturalisation - 2012
12,384 (-13.3)

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New from the Transactional Records Access Clearinghouse, Syracuse University

ICE Deportations: Gender, Age, and Country of Citizenship
April 2014


Country of Citizenship:

Citizens of Mexico continue to be the largest group of ICE deportees, but their numbers declined by 15 percent between FY 2012 and FY 2013. They now make up slightly less than two thirds (65.5 percent) of all ICE deportees.

The country with the second largest contingent of ICE deportees was Guatemala; ICE deported 9.5 percent more individuals from Guatemala in FY 2013 than it did the year before. In third place was Honduras, which saw a slight (1.4 percent) decline.

Secure Communities and ICE Deportation: A Failed Program?
April 2014


An examination of millions of deportation records since the launch of Secure Communities — a massive government surveillance program — shows that this continuing effort has not increased the removal of its primary announced targets: non-citizens who have committed crimes other than minor violations. In fact, the number of such individuals deported by Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) has actually declined over the last four years.
. . .

During the past six years — from the last year of the Bush administration through the first five years of the Obama administration — government records indicate over 2.3 million noncitizens were deported by ICE. This spans the entire period from just before the Secure Communities program was launched under President Bush in October 2008 to its extension to virtually all jurisdictions across the nation — some 3,181 — by the end of fiscal year 2013.

Analysis of ICE data covering these 2.3 million deportations obtained by TRAC show that while the agency was able to increase the number of noncitizens it deported who had been convicted of a crime, this was largely a result of an increase in the deportations of individuals whose most serious conviction was an immigration or traffic violation.

In fact, after Director Morton on June 30 of 2010 directed a renewed focus on finding and deporting "convicted criminals" who posed a serious threat to public safety or endangered national security, the number of individuals deported who have been convicted of any criminal offense apart from an immigration or traffic violation has actually declined.

This decline occurred at the same time as the most rapid expansion in the number of jurisdictions covered by the Secure Communities program occurred.

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The Fiscal Burden of Illegal Immigration on North Carolinians
By Jack Martin
March 2014


Illegal immigration costs North Carolina taxpayers about $2 billion per year. That amounts to about $578 for every household headed by a native-born or naturalized U.S. citizen.

Half of the fiscal expenditures result from the costs of K-12 education for the children of illegal aliens — both those in the country illegally and those born here to illegal aliens. Another major outlay results from the need to provide supplemental English language instruction to students with Limited English Proficiency. Together, these educational costs are more than two-thirds of all expenditures. Other fiscal outlays include health care, justice and law enforcement, public assistance and general government services.

Tax revenue is collected from the illegal alien population, but the taxes paid — estimated at about $288 million per year — do not come close to paying for the outlays. In this study we include an estimate of revenue from income, property, sales and "sin" taxes. It should be kept in mind however that similar or greater tax revenue would be collected if the same jobs were occupied by legal workers rather than by illegal workers.

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78 Percent Favor Proof of Citizenship Before Being Allowed to Vote
Rasmussen Reports, March 25, 2014


A new Rasmussen Reports national telephone survey finds that 78% of Likely U.S. Voters believe everyone should be required to prove his or her citizenship before being allowed to register to vote. That’s up from 71% a year ago. Just 19% oppose that requirement.
. . .
The survey of 1,000 Likely Voters was conducted on March 20-21, 2013 by Rasmussen Reports. The margin of sampling error is +/- 3 percentage points with a 95% level of confidence. Field work for all Rasmussen Reports surveys is conducted by Pulse Opinion Research, LLC. See methodology.

In surveys since June 2006, voters have been just as adamant in their support of laws that require voters to prove their identity at the polls before being allowed to vote. Fifty-nine percent (59%) do not believe photo ID laws discriminate against some voters.

Most voters across the partisan spectrum support laws that require proof of citizenship before being allowed to register to vote, although Democrats are less enthusiastic about those laws than Republicans and unaffiliated voters are. Seventy-seven percent (77%) of GOP voters and 67% of unaffiliateds believe such laws do not discriminate against some voters, but Democrats are evenly divided on that question.

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New from the Institute for the Study of Labor

1. Do Immigrants Bring Good Health?
By Osea Giuntella and Fabrizio Mazzonna
Discussion Paper No. 8073, March 2014

2. Returns to Citizenship? Evidence from Germany's Recent Immigration Reforms
By Christina Gathmann and Nicolas Keller
Discussion Paper No. 8064, March 2014

3. Immigrants and Firms' Productivity: Evidence from France
By Cristina Mitaritonna, Gianluca Orefice, and Giovanni Peri
Discussion Paper No. 8063, March 2014

4. Forty Years of Immigrant Segregation in France, 1968-2007: How Different is the New Immigration?
By Jean-Louis Pan Ké Shon and Gregory Verdugo
Discussion Paper No. 8062, March 2014

5. The Two-Step Australian Immigration Policy and its Impact on Immigrant Employment Outcomes
Robert Gregory
Discussion Paper No. 8061, March 2014

6. Housing Adequacy Gap for Minorities and Immigrants in the U.S.: Evidence from the 2009 American Housing Survey
By Kusum Mundra and Amarendra Sharma
Discussion Paper No. 8038, March 2014

7. Ethnic Goods and Immigrant Assimilation
By Ilhom Abdulloev, Gil S. Epstein, and Ira N. Gang
Discussion Paper No. 8004, March 2014

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New from the Migration Policy Institute

The Future of Immigrant Integration in Europe: Mainstreaming Approaches for Inclusion
By Elizabeth Collett and Milica Petrovic

A Precarious Position: The Labor Market Integration of New Immigrants in Spain
By Núria Rodríguez-Planas and Natalia Nollenberger

A Tumultuous Decade: Employment Outcomes of Immigrants in the Czech Republic
By Daniel Munich

Education Reform in a Changing Georgia: Promoting High School and College Success for Immigrant Youth
By Sarah Hooker, Michael Fix, and Margie McHugh

Human Rights, Climate Change, Environmental Degradation and Migration: A New Paradigm
MPI Policy Brief, March 2014

Hazleton Immigration Ordinance That Began With a Bang Goes Out With a Whimper
MPI Policy Beat, March 28, 2014

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New from the Social Science Research Network

1. Bordering on Failure: Canada-U.S. Border Policy and the Politics of Refugee Exclusion
By Efrat Arbel, University of British Columbia Faculty of Law; Harvard University Law School and Alletta Brenner, Harvard University Law School
Harvard Immigration and Refugee Law Clinical Program (November 2013)

2. The Political Economy of Immigration in a Direct Democracy: The Case of Switzerland
By Jaya Krishnakumar, University of Geneva and Tobias Müller, University of Geneva, School of Economics and Management
European Economic Review, Vol. 56, No. 2, 2012

3. Holding the Line: U.S. Custom and Border Protection’s Expansion of the Border Search Exception and the Ensuing Destruction of Interior Fourth Amendment Rights
By Hannah Robbins, Cardozo Law Review; Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law
Posted February 10, 2014
Cardozo Law Review, Forthcoming

4. Lessons for U.S. Metro Areas: Characteristics and Clustering of High-Tech Immigrant Entrepreneurs
By Cathy Yang Liu, Georgia State University; Gary Painter, University of Southern California, and Qingfang Wang, University of North Carolina (UNC) at Charlotte
Posted March 2014

5. Seek Justice, Not Just Deportation: How to Improve Prosecutorial Discretion in Immigration Law
By Erin B. Corcoran, University of New Hampshire School of Law
Posted March 10, 2014

6. Key Academic Research on Detention and Asylum
By Stephanie J. Silverman
Detention and Asylum Research Cluster, Refugee Research Network; Jack & Mae Nathanson Centre on Transnational Human Rights, Crime and Security
Detention and Asylum Research Cluster Publications, 2013

7. Detention in Canada
By Stephanie J. Silverman
Detention and Asylum Research Cluster, Refugee Research Network ; Jack & Mae Nathanson Centre on Transnational Human Rights, Crime and Security
Detention and Asylum Research Cluster Publications, 2013

8. Why the Rule-of-Law Dictates that the Exclusionary Rule Should Apply in Full Force in Immigration Proceedings
By Lindsay Adkin
Posted February 10, 2014
University of Miami Law Review, Forthcoming

9. The Immigrant and Miranda
By Anjana Malhotra, SUNY Buffalo Law School
Posted March 22, 2014
Southern Methodist University Law Review, Vol. 66, No. 277, 2013

10. Central American Migrants in Mexico: Implications for U.S. Security and Immigration Policy
By Amelia Frank-Vitale, Institute of Current World Affairs (ICWA)
CLALS Working Paper Series No. 2

11. What Would an Unbroken Immigration System Look Like?
By David A. Martin, University of Virginia School of Law
Virginia Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper No. 2014-25

12. Performative Citizenship in the Civil Rights and Immigrant Rights Movements
By Kathryn R. Abrams, University of California, Berkeley School of Law
Posted March 16, 2014

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New from the International Organization for Migration

International Migration and Development Training Modules
March 2014

Human Rights, Climate Change, Environmental Degradation: A New Paradigm
By Rabab Fatima, Anita Jawadurovna Wadud and Sabira Coelho
IOM-MPI Issue in Brief No. 8, March 2014


The Rise of Federal Immigration Crimes
Unlawful Reentry Drives Growth
By Michael T. Light, Mark Hugo Lopez and Ana Gonzalez-Barrera
Pew Research Hispanic Trends Project, March 18, 2014

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The Economic Gains from Eliminating U.S. Travel Visas
By Robert A. Lawson, Saurav Roychoudhury and Ryan Murphy
Cato Economic Development Bulletin No. 19, February 6, 2014

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The Political Externalities of Immigration: Evidence from the United States
By Zachary Gochenour and Alex Nowrasteh
Cato Working Paper No. 14, January 15, 2014

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Hidden Away: Abuses against Migrant Domestic Workers in the UK
Human Rights Watch, March 2014

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French connections: the networking strategies of French highly skilled migrants in London
By Louise Ryan and Jon Mulholland
Global Networks, Vol. 14, No. 2, April 2014

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Immigration Regulation in Federal States: Challenges and Responses in Comparative Perspective
By Sasha Baglay and Delphine Nakache

Springer; 244 pp.

Hardcover, ISBN: 9401786038, $122.55

Kindle, 1438 KB, ASIN: B00J4AX9EQ, $103.20

Book Description: The book examines the phenomenon of immigration federalism: its main characteristics, why and how it has developed, its implications for immigration systems (in general) and non-citizens’ rights (in particular). The book introduces the reader to theoretical perspectives on immigration federalism through three sets of literature – federalism, governance and non-citizens’ rights – that provide a necessary framework for understanding immigration federalism’s multiple facets and impacts. It also offers an analysis of immigration federalism through case studies of six jurisdictions: Australia, Canada, Germany, Switzerland, the EU and the US.

Despite increased sub-national activity in immigration regulation in several federal states, very little research has been dedicated so far to comparing how federal states deal with immigration federalism. Comparative studies on the human rights implications of immigration federalism have received even less attention. This book seeks to fill the gap in this area and is an important contribution to the field, providing the reader with a better understanding of the complex issues surrounding immigration federalism and its impact on non-citizens.

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Culling the Masses: The Democratic Origins of Racist Immigration Policy in the Americas
By David FitzGerald, David Cook-Martín, and Angela S. García

Harvard University Press, 512 pp.

Hardcover, ISBN: 0674729048, $43.72

Book Description: Culling the Masses questions the widely held view that in the long run democracy and racism cannot coexist. David Scott FitzGerald and David Cook-Martín show that democracies were the first countries in the Americas to select immigrants by race, and undemocratic states the first to outlaw discrimination. Through analysis of legal records from twenty-two countries between 1790 and 2010, the authors present a history of the rise and fall of racial selection in the Western Hemisphere.

The United States led the way in using legal means to exclude "inferior" ethnic groups. Starting in 1790, Congress began passing nationality and immigration laws that prevented Africans and Asians from becoming citizens, on the grounds that they were inherently incapable of self-government. Similar policies were soon adopted by the self-governing colonies and dominions of the British Empire, eventually spreading across Latin America as well.

Undemocratic regimes in Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay, and Cuba reversed their discriminatory laws in the 1930s and 1940s, decades ahead of the United States and Canada. The conventional claim that racism and democracy are antithetical--because democracy depends on ideals of equality and fairness, which are incompatible with the notion of racial inferiority--cannot explain why liberal democracies were leaders in promoting racist policies and laggards in eliminating them. Ultimately, the authors argue, the changed racial geopolitics of World War II and the Cold War was necessary to convince North American countries to reform their immigration and citizenship laws.

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Encountering Ellis Island: How European Immigrants Entered America
By Ronald H. Bayor

Johns Hopkins University Press, 184 pp.

Hardcover, ISBN: 1421413671, $41.81

Paperback, ISBN: 142141368X, $21.34

Kindle, 6861 KB, ASIN: B00I5JNYQ0, $87.96

Book Description: America is famously known as a nation of immigrants. Millions of Europeans journeyed to the United States in the peak years of 1892–1924, and Ellis Island, New York, is where the great majority landed. Ellis Island opened in 1892 with the goal of placing immigration under the control of the federal government and systematizing the entry process. Encountering Ellis Island introduces readers to the ways in which the principal nineteenth- and early twentieth-century American portal for Europeans worked in practice, with some comparison to Angel Island, the main entry point for Asian immigrants.

What happened along the journey? How did the processing of so many people work? What were the reactions of the newly arrived to the process (and threats) of inspection, delays, hospitalization, detention, and deportation? How did immigration officials attempt to protect the country from diseased or "unfit" newcomers, and how did these definitions take shape and change? What happened to people who failed screening? And how, at the journey's end, did immigrants respond to admission to their new homeland?

Ronald H. Bayor, a senior scholar in immigrant and urban studies, gives voice to both immigrants and Island workers to offer perspectives on the human experience and institutional imperatives associated with the arrival experience. Drawing on firsthand accounts from, and interviews with, immigrants, doctors, inspectors, aid workers, and interpreters, Bayor paints a vivid and sometimes troubling portrait of the immigration process.

In reality, Ellis Island had many liabilities as well as assets. Corruption was rife. Immigrants with medical issues occasionally faced a hostile staff. Some families, on the other hand, reunited in great joy and found relief at their journey's end.

Encountering Ellis Island lays bare the profound and sometimes-victorious story of people chasing the American Dream: leaving everything behind, facing a new language and a new culture, and starting a new American life.

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After They Closed the Gates: Jewish Illegal Immigration to the United States, 1921-1965
By Libby Garland

University Of Chicago Press, 312 pp.

Hardcover, ISBN: 022612245X, $44.36

Kindle, 892 KB, ASIN: B00IL4ETEU, $21.99

Book Description: In 1921 and 1924, the United States passed laws to sharply reduce the influx of immigrants into the country. By allocating only small quotas to the nations of southern and eastern Europe, and banning almost all immigration from Asia, the new laws were supposed to stem the tide of foreigners considered especially inferior and dangerous. However, immigrants continued to come, sailing into the port of New York with fake passports, or from Cuba to Florida, hidden in the holds of boats loaded with contraband liquor. Jews, one of the main targets of the quota laws, figured prominently in the new international underworld of illegal immigration. However, they ultimately managed to escape permanent association with the identity of the “illegal alien” in a way that other groups, such as Mexicans, thus far, have not.

In After They Closed the Gates, Libby Garland tells the untold stories of the Jewish migrants and smugglers involved in that underworld, showing how such stories contributed to growing national anxieties about illegal immigration. Garland also helps us understand how Jews were linked to, and then unlinked from, the specter of illegal immigration. By tracing this complex history, Garland offers compelling insights into the contingent nature of citizenship, belonging, and Americanness.

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Border Patrol Nation: Dispatches from the Front Lines of Homeland Security
By Todd Miller

City Lights Publishers, 358 pp.

Paperback, ISBN: 0872866319, $13.13

Kindle, 1774 KB, ASIN: B00H6UZVV0, $9.99

Book Description: Armed authorities watch from a military-grade surveillance tower as lines of people stream toward the security checkpoint, tickets in hand, anxious and excited to get through the gate. Few seem to notice or care that the U.S. Border Patrol is monitoring the Super Bowl, as they have for years, one of the many ways that forces created to police the borders are now being used, in an increasingly militarized fashion, to survey and monitor the whole of American society.

In fast-paced prose, Miller sounds an alarm as he chronicles the changing landscape. Travelling the country—and beyond—to speak with the people most involved with and impacted by the Border Patrol, he combines these first-hand encounters with careful research to expose a vast and booming industry for high-end technology, weapons, surveillance, and prisons. While politicians and corporations reap substantial profits, the experiences of millions of men, women, and children point to staggering humanitarian consequences. Border Patrol Nation shows us in stark relief how the entire country has become a militarized border zone, with consequences that affect us all.

For the past fifteen years Todd Miller has researched, written about, and worked on immigration and border issues from both sides of the U.S. Mexico divide for organizations such as BorderLinks, Witness for Peace, and NACLA. His writings about the border have appeared in the New York Times, TomDispatch, Mother Jones, The Nation, Al Jazeera English, and Salon among other places.

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Global Migration: The Basics
By Bernadette Hanlon and Thomas J. Vicino

Routledge, 190 pp.

Hardcover, ISBN: 0415533856, $99.72

Paperback, ISBN: 0415533864, $21.08

Kindle, 2069 KB, ASIN: B00J9KUN4U, $9.99

Book Description: Migration is a politically sensitive topic and an important aspect of contentious debates about social and cultural diversity, economic stability, terrorism, globalization, and nationalism. Global Migration: The Basics examines:

* history and geography of global migration
* the role of migrants in society
* impact of migrants on the economy and the political system
* policy challenges that need to be faced in confronting a rapidly changing world economy and society.

This book challenges students of geography, political science, public policy, sociology, and economics to look beyond the rhetoric and consider the real and basic facts about migration. Through detailed examinations of the scholarly literature, demographic patterns, and public policy debates, Global Migration: The Basics exposes readers to the underlying causes and consequences of migration.

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Comparative Migration Studies

Lessons from Canada and Germany: Immigration and Integration Experiences Compared
By Harald Bauder, Patti Tamara Lenard, and Christine Straehle

Re-Imagining the Nation - Lessons from the Debates of Immigration in a Settler Society and an Ethnic Nation
By Bauder Harald

Traditions of Nationhood or Political Conjuncture? - Debating Citizenship in Canada and Germany
By Elke Winter

When Extremes Converge - German and Canadian Labor Migration Policy Compared
By Holger Kolb

Beyond national models? - Governing migration and integration at the regional and local levels in Canada and Germany
By Oliver Schmidtke

Shifting Up and Back - The European Turn in Canadian Refugee Policy
By Dagmar Soennecken

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CSEM Newsletter
April 2014

English language content:

By Steve Scherer
Reuters, April 3, 2014

The Italian navy rescued 730 people aboard two overcrowded boats in the Mediterranean Sea south of Sicily, officials said on Wednesday, as the numbers of migrant boats crossing from North Africa surges in the mild spring weather.

The migrants, including 124 women and 29 children, were taken aboard the amphibious assault ship San Giorgio and another vessel late on Tuesday and early on Wednesday, a navy statement said. They were being taken to a port in Sicily.

Calm sea conditions saw more than 4,000 migrants rescued from the seas off Italy over four days late last month.

Italy is a major gateway into Europe for migrants who come by sea from North Africa. The number of arrivals tripled to more than 40,000 in 2013 from the previous year, fuelled by Syria's civil war and conflict in the Horn of Africa.

In October, at least 366 Eritreans drowned in a shipwreck near the shore of the Italian island of Lampedusa, about halfway between Sicily and Tunisia. More than 200, mostly Syrians, died in another shipwreck a week later.

The shipwrecks prompted the government to put its navy on permanent mission in the waters between Sicily and North Africa. Italy has repeatedly asked the EU to take on a greater role in policing its seas because two-thirds of the migrants move on to other countries in the region after being rescued.
. . .

By Cynthia D. Balana
Global Nation, April 2, 2014
. . .
Hidden away
The 58-page report titled “Hidden Away: Abuses against Migrant Domestic Workers in the UK” documents the confiscation of passports, confinement to the home, physical and psychological abuse, extremely long working hours with no rest days and very low wages or nonpayment of wages.

The report showed that the UK government failed to live up to its obligations under international law to protect migrant domestic workers and enable them to access justice if they are mistreated.

In April 2012, the United Kingdom abolished the right of migrant domestic workers to change employers once they are in the United Kingdom against the recommendations of parliament, nongovernmental organizations and United Nations experts.

Tied visa
Under the terms of the new “tied visa,” overseas domestic workers cannot legally leave their employer and find new work—meaning, those abused can become trapped.

Leghtas said workers who are mistreated now face a horrendous choice: either endure the terrible abuse or escape and become undocumented migrants, where they are much more vulnerable to further abuse and exploitation.

“It’s abhorrent that anyone should be tied into abuse in this way,” she said.

Because domestic helpers work in private households, much of the abuse takes place behind closed doors, the HRW said.

Workers told HRW of working up to 18 hours per day for weeks on end without breaks, not being fed properly and surviving on leftovers, being forbidden from possessing a mobile phone or contacting their own families and being unable to ever leave their employers’ homes unaccompanied. Some were paid wages as little as £100 (US$160) per month and sometimes even these meager salaries were withheld.

Modern slavery bill
The British Home Secretary Theresa May is bringing forward a modern slavery bill to tackle serious labor abuses in the United Kingdoms. In December 2013, May presented a draft bill that would increase penalties for slavery, servitude, forced labor and human trafficking from 14 years to life imprisonment.

The bill, however, makes no reference at all to the plight of domestic workers. A parliamentary committee is reviewing the draft bill and is due to publish a report in early April.

The HRW appealed to the UK government to broaden the scope of the bill to ensure appropriate protections for migrant domestic workers, including the right to change employer.

It said restoring this right is vital to help combat abuse against this very vulnerable group of workers.

Every year, some 15,000 migrant domestic workers arrive in the United Kingdom. Many of those interviewed by HRW were women from Asia or Africa who previously worked for their employers in the Gulf and had already experienced abuse there at the hands of their employers.
. . .


March 2014

By William Lacy Swing
The Himalayan Times, March 23, 2014

One of the most significant recent trends in migration has been the rise in the number of women using dangerous routes previously used mainly by men.

More and more women – fleeing discrimination, violence, or poverty – are now taking the same risks as men in search of a better life for themselves and their children. This is desperation migration.

Indeed, while many women travel with their families, the International Organization for Migration (IOM) is seeing an increasing number of women migrating on their own to an unknown, unpredictable, and often dangerous future.

Women and children migrants are dying with increasing frequency at sea, crossing deserts, and on other hazardous routes.

What has changed?

Among the many factors pushing women to migrate are pervasive gender bias and social prejudices against single mothers or widows in their country of origin. But poverty is almost always the strongest force driving women to leave.

In most poor countries, women are poorer than men, owing to the systematic discrimination that they face in education, health care, employment, and control of assets.

Of course, most migrant women do not encounter mistreatment or die on their journeys; in fact, many derive real benefits from migration.

But, among the world’s estimated 111 million migrant women (half the total), violence and abuse can occur at any time, starting from the very outset of the migration process.

Throughout the migration cycle, women are more at risk from physical violence by fellow migrants, smugglers, and state officers, and can be forced to exchange sex for transportation, food, or accommodation.

Unsurprisingly, migrant women are often victims of human trafficking, finding themselves enslaved as laborers, prostitutes, or participants in organized begging operations.
. . .

Catholic News Agency, March 19, 2014

Catholic, Anglican, and Muslim leaders have launched an anti-human trafficking network that hopes to eradicate the crime by 2020 through the mobilization of religious communities.

“It’s not politically correct to call this modern slavery a crime against humanity, but we want to arrive at that in national and international law,” said Bishop Marcelo Sanchez Sorondo, chancellor of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences and the Pontifical Academy of Social Sciences.

Bishop Sanchez was one of several religious leaders who signed a new agreement March 17 at the Vatican press office to collaborate in the fight against human trafficking through the new organization called the Global Freedom Network, Vatican Radio reported.

David Moxon, an Anglican bishop who represents the Archbishop of Canterbury to the Holy See and is director of the Anglican Centre in Rome, signed the document on behalf of the Anglican Communion.

“If you look at the work of Catholic, Anglican and other faith missions over the last three or four decades, they have been engaged in the fight against human trafficking,” Moxon said.

He added, however that a collaborative approach to anti-trafficking work among faith communities has been lacking.
. . .

By Adelaide Mena
Catholic News Agency, March 19, 2014

Washington D.C - President Barack Obama’s recent action on immigration may indicate a move towards a better approach to immigration, a policy expert for the U.S. bishops’ conference says.

“Certainly we need to have a more humane deportation policy,” Kevin Appleby, director of the U.S. bishops’ Office of Migration Policy and Public Affairs, told CNA March 18. “We need to reform the system.”

Appleby said that while some changes require that the government “reform the system from Congress,” there are “a lot of things the president can do within his authority” by working within existing laws.

The renewed focus on deportations of undocumented workers, a process that often separates family members from one another, stems from recent statements from the White House.

The White House said in a March 13 statement that President Obama recently met with Homeland Security Secretary Jeh Johnson and Latino lawmakers. After the meeting, the president said that he has asked Johnson to “do an inventory of the department’s current practices to see how it can conduct enforcement more humanely within the confines of the law.”

“The president emphasized his deep concern about the pain too many families feel from the separation that comes from our broken immigration system,” White House press secretary Jay Carney said March 13.

During the first five years of the Obama administration, two million undocumented immigrants have been deported. This is more than during the eight years of the Bush administration.

Appleby said he hoped that the president would examine the U.S. government’s detention policy. The president could set criteria for whom he “would defer their deportation,” such as those with undocumented children who grow up in the United States.

These children are now given conditional protection from deportation under the DREAM act.

While the president wouldn’t “be able to give people legal status,” Appleby said, “there are other kinds of deportation tools that he doesn’t have to use as much.”

He also suggested that the president “limit deportation and focus on criminals” rather than on law-abiding people working in the United States.

With comprehensive changes, Appleby added, the immigration system should be recalibrated “so that families are reunited more expeditiously, and those who want to come and work--and we need their work--can come safely.”
. . .


. . .
Over the past five years, more than half-a-million people - mainly Somalis, Ethiopians and Eritreans - have crossed the waters of the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea to reach Yemen in overcrowded boats. In addition to countless reports of mistreatment, abuse, rape and torture by unscrupulous trafficking rings, smugglers are also often reported to throw passengers overboard in order to prevent capsizing or avoid detection.

According to the UNHCR statement, the UN agency has worked to enhance services offered to new arrivals in collaboration with the Mixed Migration Task Force and other partners, including the Government of Yemen, international and national non-governmental organizations and host communities.
. . .

As conflict in Syria approaches fourth year, the IRC highlights figures that show the dangers women and girls are facing – from hazardous births to forced marriage.
The Arab Daily News, March 12, 2014

As conflict in Syria approaches fourth year, the IRC highlights figures that show the dangers women and girls are facing – from hazardous births to forced marriage.

In 2014 alone the IRC estimates that 22,550 refugee or displaced Syrian women will give birth and nearly 3,400 will suffer miscarriage or have a stillbirth, uncertain if or when they will receive appropriate medical attention. The IRC estimates at least 19,000 refugee or displaced Syrian girls will experience their first menstrual period in a similarly unfamiliar environment this year.

* In an assessment by the IRC and other agencies, 75 percent of the women and girls participating in Jordan said they felt the place where they were living was unsafe. 59 percent of women said that their lack of privacy put them at risk of sexual assault.

* 83 percent of women surveyed during an interagency assessment in Jordan said they would not know where to go to get help if they were physically or sexually abused. When women in such circumstances do come forward, they risk honor killings or banishment from families and communities.

* Women who spoke to the IRC in Jordan reported domestic violence, sexual assault, and having to push their daughters into marriage in order to survive amid economic hardship - last year close to 30 percent of women reporting violence were victims of physical assault by someone they knew. And almost 20 percent of cases involved forced marriage of both adult women and adolescent girls.

* In Jordan, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees has found that widows and female heads of households frequently fail to register for assistance unless accompanied by a male relative. Yet only 20 percent of refugees in Jordan are adult males, most of whom are away during the day searching for work, making registration virtually impossible.
. . .

By Omar Millan
Latino Voices, March 17, 2014

TIJUANA, Mexico (AP) — Sixty Mexican migrants were detained Sunday by U.S. authorities after they crossed into the United States from the border city of Tijuana as part of a protest against U.S. immigration policies.

It was the third such group to try to enter the U.S. at the Otay Mesa border crossing in San Diego and ask for asylum in the last week.

The group, led by two young sisters whose parents live in North Carolina, held signs that read "Undocumented Unashamed," and "Immigration reform starts here." They said before crossing that they were protesting a growing number of deportations during President Barack Obama's administration and demanding an overhaul of U.S. immigration laws.

The sisters, Jacqueline and Marisol Aparicio, ages 11 and 12, said they want to reunite with their parents, whom they haven't seen in 10 years.

Mothers holding their children's hands, young students and others met outside a Tijuana health clinic before heading to the U.S.
. . .

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Ethnic and Racial Studies
Vol. 37, No. 5, April 2024

Selected articles:

Blacks, Jews, gays and immigrants are taking over’: how the use of polling data can distort reality and perpetuate inequality among immigrants
By Charles A. Gallagher

Suspect technologies: forensic testing of asylum seekers at the UK border
By Richard Tutton, Christine Hauskeller, and Steve Sturdy

Ethnic identities in the future: the possible effects of mass immigration and genetic testing
By Mary C. Waters

Race Migrations: Latinos and the Cultural Transformation of Race
By Elizabeth Aranda

Xenophobia and Islamophobia in Europe
By Paul Bagguley

Military Migrants: Fighting for Your Country
By Derrick R. Brooms

Beyond walls and cages: prisons, borders, and global crisis
By Rebecca Bryant

The Battle of Britishness: migrant journeys, 1685 to the present
By Steve Garner

Undocumented workers' transitions: legal status, migration, and work in Europe
By Shannon Gleeson

Migration and diversity in Asian contexts
By Mary Somers Heidhues

Frontiers of Fear: Immigration and Insecurity in the United States and Europe
By Christopher T. Husbands

Education and immigration
By Elina Kilpi-Jakonen

Just neighbors? Research on African American and Latino relations in the United States
By Daniel T. Lichter

Life Behind the Lobby. Indian American Motel Owners and the American Dream
By Miranda Lubbers

Radical moves: Caribbean migrants and the politics of race in the jazz age
By Perry Mars Professor Emeritus

Conflicting commitments: the politics of enforcing immigrant worker rights in San Jose and Houston
By Keumjae Park

Wind over water: migration in an East Asian context
By Bindi Shah

Borderline justice: the fight for refugee and migrant rights
By Ilse van Liempt

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International Migration
Vol. 52, No. 2, April 2014


Indian Students and the Evolution of the Study-Migration Pathway in Australia
By Lesleyanne Hawthorne

Attracting and Retaining Globally Mobile Skilled Migrants: Policy Challenges based on Australian Research
By Siew-Ean Khoo

The Economic Contribution of Humanitarian Settlers in Australia
By Graeme Hugo

Immigration Policy and Entrepreneurship
By Stéphane Mahuteau, Matloob Piracha, Massimilano Tani and Matias Vaira Lucero


Japanese-Brazilians and the Future of Brazilian Migration to Japan
By David McKenzie and Alejandrina Salcedo

Segmented Assimilation, Transnationalism, and Educational Attainment of Brazilian Migrant Children in Japan
By Hirohisa Takenoshita, Yoshimi Chitose, Shigehiro Ikegami and Eunice Akemi Ishikawa

Multicultural Challenges in Korea: the Current Stage and a Prospect
By Nam-Kook Kim

From Workers to Entrepreneurs: Development of Bangladeshi Migrant Businesses in The Republic of Korea
By Lian Kwen Fee and Md Mizanur Rahman

Ethnic Labor Market Contexts and the Earnings of Asian Immigrants
By Hyoung-jin Shin and Zai Liang

Contextualizing Vocabularies of Motive in International Migration: The Case of Taiwanese in the United States
By Chien-Juh Gu

Ethnic Return Migration and Public Debate: The Case of Kazakhstan
By Isik Kusçu

Making the Most of Technology: Indian Women Migrants in Australia
By Selena Costa-Pinto

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International Migration Review
Vol. 48, No. 1, Spring 2014


The Great Recession and the Allure of New Immigrant Destinations in the United States
By Mark Ellis, Richard Wrigh,t and Matthew Townley

Competing for Lebanon's Diaspora: Transnationalism and Domestic Struggles in a Weak State
By Wendy Pearlman

Host National Identification of Immigrants in the Netherlands
By Thomas de Vroome, Maykel Verkuyten, and Borja Martinovic

Introduction to the Special Collection: South–South Migrations: What is (Still) on the Research Agenda?
By Philippe De Lombaerde, Fei Guo, and Helion Povoa Neto

Everyday Restriction: Central American Women and the State in the Mexico-Guatemala Border City of Tapachula
By Lindsey Carte

“Those who come to do harm”: The Framings of Immigration Problems in Costa Rican Immigration Law
By Caitlin E. Fouratt

“Big Fish in a Small Pond”: Chinese Migrant Shopkeepers in South Africa
By Edwin Lin

Inducing Development: Social Remittances and the Expansion of Oil Palm
By Marvin Joseph F. Montefrio, Yasmin Y. Ortiga, and Ma. Rose Cristy B. Josol

Social Capital and Livelihoods in Johannesburg: Differential Advantages and Unexpected Outcomes among Foreign-Born Migrants, Internal Migrants, and Long-Term South African Residents
By Tyler W. Myroniuk and Jo Vearey

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Journal on Migration and Human Security
Vol. 2, No. 1, 2014


Temporary Protected Status after 25 Years: Addressing the Challenge of Long-Term “Temporary” Residents and Strengthening a Centerpiece of US Humanitarian Protection
By Claire Bergeron

Creating a More Responsive and Seamless Refugee Protection System: The Scope, Promise and Limitations of US Temporary Protection Programs
By Donald Kerwin

Legalization Programs and the Integration of Unauthorized Immigrants: A Comparison of S. 744 and IRCA
By María E. Enchautegui

At the Edge of US Immigration’s “Halt of Folly:” Data, Information, and Research Needs in the Event of Legalization
By Fernando Riosmena

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Migration Policy Practice
Vol. IV, No. 1, February–March 2014


Government views and policy priorities for international migration
By Vinod Mishra and Julia Ferre

The Swiss vote against mass immigration and international law: A preliminary assessment
By Vincent Chetail

Tuberculosis and migration: A post-2015 call for action
By Poonam Dhavan and Davide Mosca

China and Europe: Increasingly linked by migration
By Frank Laczko and Tara Brian

Protecting the rights of migrants in Europe: The role of the Committee on Migration, Refugees and Displaced Persons of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe
The Secretariat of the Committee on Migration, Refugees and Displaced Persons

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Migration Studies
Vol. 2, No. 1, March 2014


A geography of extra-territorial citizenship: Explanations of external voting
By Michael Collyer

The EU Blue Card: Preferences, policies, and negotiations between Member States
By Lucie Cerna

Migration in Arctic Alaska: Empirical evidence of the stepping stones hypothesis
By E. Lance Howe, Lee Huskey, and Matthew D. Berman

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Vol. 9, No. 2, April 2014

Selected articles:

The Transnational Project and its Implications for Migrant Civil Society in Bangladesh
By David R. Crawforda and Nina Martina

Investing in Leaving: The Greek Case of International Migration of Professionals
By Lois Labrianidis

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Ano 24, No. 94, March 2014

English language content:

Catholics, Evangelicals team up in pressing for immigration reform

In a joint letter to members of Congress, Catholic bishops and evangelical leaders pleaded for "common sense fixes to our immigration policies" by passing legislation this year.

In the Feb. 26 letter, 11 bishops and half a dozen evangelical leaders said that as religious leaders, "we live every day with the reality that our immigration system does not reflect our commitment to the values of human dignity, family unity and respect for the rule of law that define us as Americans."

At a briefing earlier in the week, the prospects for passage of an immigration bill this term were described as not impossible, but complicated.
. . .

Myths About Muslim Immigrants in the West
By Doug Saunders
. . .
2. Immigrants from Muslim countries are going to swamp us

People look at the huge families of many newMuslim immigrants and imagine them multiplying at exponential rates. But this is a bit of an illusion—asare many of the figures suggesting that Muslim immigrants have fertility rates higher than in their homelands. This is because most new immigrants have most of their children in the years immediately after their arrival. The way we calculate Total Fertility Rate — the measure of average family size — is by taking the total number of births a woman has had and extrapolating it across her fertile life. As a result, because immigrants tend to have most of their children soon after arriving, scholarly
. . .

A spiritual retreat in Dubai keeps the faith alive among migrants in the Middle East
Fr Errol Fernandes, a Jesuit, talks to AsiaNews about Christian workers bearing witness o their faith in the countries of the Persian Gulf. From 4 to 6 November, the priest led a spiritual retreat in Dubai on the occasion of the Year of Faith, on behalf of Churches that exist because of the presence of migrants. Wherever freedom of religion exists in Arab countries, Christianity is alive and vibrant. For the clergyman, those who are persecuted live like Christ and their witness brings new life to the Church.
By Nirmala Carvalho

"Asian migrant Christians keep the faith alive in the Middle East," said Fr Errol Fernandes SJ, principal at St Xavier's College in Mumbai, who spoke to AsiaNews about the many retreats he has organised in recent years around the world, including the Arab world and the Persian Gulf (except for Saudi Arabia).

Fr Fernandes described his experience among Christian migrants, and spoke about the pope's call "not [to] resign ourselves to imagining a Middle East without Christians" last Thursday during the Plenary Assembly of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches. Indeed, the pope cares about the situation of Christians who suffer persecution and restrictions in Syria, Turkey, Egypt and other places. "Fear should never govern our lives," he added citing Francis. "This means that everyone should be free and wherever they live, they should have the opportunity to practice their faith."

From 4 to 6 November, Fr Fernandes led a prayer retreat in Dubai (United Arab Emirates) titled 'Rekindle the Fire'. For the clergyman, the Dubai meeting was an opportunity to experience the overall theme of the Year of Faith, which calls on the faithful to invigorate our beliefs, return to our roots and look with confidence and courage towards the future.

In your view, can the overwhelming response to prayer retreats by many Asian Christian migrants in the Middle East be a sign of hope for Christianity in the Middle East?

In recent months, many people have written to me to say that they were helped by the discussions and activities that took place at the retreats. Although many letters express an individual point of view, I am convinced that somehow these experiences will also seep into the community as a whole.

I always thought that if we let Him act, God can do great miracles. This is the reason why I continue to pray for God to stop me from interfering with the suggestions of the Holy Spirit, which speaks in a language that everyone can understand.
. . .

World churches body troubled at Swiss vote to restrict immigration
By Peter Kenny

The head of the Geneva-based World Council of Churches has warned that a Swiss referendum vote backing restrictions of immigration from the European Union could have "adverse effects" on international organizations.

"We stand with our member churches here in Switzerland who have made it clear that Switzerland needs to continue being a place that welcomes the stranger," the WCC general secretary Rev. Olav Fykse Tveit said in a statement on Monday.

The Federation of Swiss Protestant Churches said in a statement it regrets the acceptance by a narrow majority of the federal popular initiative "Against mass immigration." It called for an application of the law that respects international and human rights law and the free movement of people.
. . .

Most Undocumented Immigrants Are Christians From Latin America and Caribbean
By Leonardo Blair
. . .
According to the study, in the last 20 years, the United States has also granted permanent residency status to an average of one million people annually through various means.

In the last two decades, an estimated 600,000 Christian immigrants have been granted permanent resident status annually. And although this figure accounts for the largest share of any religious group, the share of Christians granted permanent resident status has dropped seven points in the lastdecade.

An estimated 68 percent of legal permanent residents in 1992 were Christians compared with an estimated 61 percent in 2012. This is reflective of the smaller percentage of permanent residents who now originate from Europe and the Americas.

"Annual levels of legal Christian immigration appear to have been lower in the late 1990s (around 430,000 per year), while the recent peak (more than 800,000) was in 2006. The number of legal Christian immigrants per year has declined somewhat since 2006, and is estimated at 620,000 for 2012," notes the Pew Research Center.
. . .

Influx of Christian and Muslim immigrants changing Canada?s religious makeup
By Benjamin Shingler
. . .
The Philippines emerged between 2006 and 2011 as a leading country of birth for people who immigrated to Canada during those five years,

An estimated 152,300 of newcomers who arrived in Canada between 2006 and 2011 – about 13.1 percent – were born in the Philippines, Statistics Canada reported Wednesday as it released the first 18 tranche of data from its 2011 National Household Survey.

While the Christian faith continues to dominate Canada‘s immigrant profile, its proportion has been steadily fading. Where more than 78 per cent of immigrants to Canada prior to 1971 identified themselves as Christians, that proportion has dropped to 47.5 per cent among those who arrived over the past five years, the survey found.

Meanwhile, the Muslim, Hindu, Sikh and Buddhist faiths have been growing, claiming 33 per cent of those immigrants who arrived b etween 2001 and 2011. Among those who arrived before 1971, that share was just 2.9 per cent. All told, the four religions accounted for some 2.4 million people in Canada in 2011, about 7.2 per cent, compared with 4.9 per cent a decade earlier.

And then the re‘s the non-believers: nearly one-quarter of the Canadian population, some 7.8 million people, claimed no religious affiliation in 2011, up from 16.5 per cent in 2001.

The arrival of religious immigrants has worked to offset the country‘s growing secular population, said Morton Weinfeld, a sociology professor at McGill University in Montreal.

To a certain extent, this adds a level of traditionalism to Canadian society,? Weinfeld said. ?There is probably a higher level of commitment (among immigrants) to their respective faiths.?
. . .

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The Social Contract
Vol. 24, No. 2, Winter 2014


How about Americans’ Dreams for a Better Future?
By Wayne Lutton

Middle-Class Dreamers Confront Immigration Nightmare
By Edwin S. Rubenstein

Dream Worlds Are Killing the American Dream
By John Vinson

Three Stakes in the Heart of the American Dream - Immigration, outsourcing, and smart machines crush citizen hopes
By Brenda Walker

Today’s Youth Cannot Even Learn About the ‘American Dream’ - Thanks to illegal immigration
By Dave Gibson

Citizens and Aliens: Blurring the Line
By Carl F. Horowitz

President Barack Obama, Meet President Dwight Eisenhower - How a 60-year-old slippery slope led into an ocean of illegal aliens
By Peter B. Gemma

American Dream Being Sold at Auction - America’s Middle Class to Be Put on Endangered Species List
By Michael W. Cutler

Manufacturing Job Losses - NAFTA’s impact in Michigan
By Wayne Lutton

Shattering the American Dream
By Gene Nelson

Jobs, Precious Jobs!
By William Buchanan

What Happened to the American Dream?
By Rob Sanchez

Humanity on the Highway to Hell - As we accelerate toward ecocide and suicide, is there an exit ramp?
By Leon Kolankiewicz

Running on Empty in Cloud Cuckoo Land - Of Asia and the West
By John Howard Wilhelm

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